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Essays About Jonas Salk And The Polio Vaccine

  • Brad Osborne (Falkirk)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine

    What happens when the back and forth with the big boys of the business (far from appealing to conservatives) is settled? (See “Fire at the Company”.)

    Admittedly Salk’s pharmaceutical work – whether synthetic or natural – is a massive social engineering achievement. But Salk never believed that unless he had the skills to cultivate vaccines for a population of children and adults he couldn’t do it. In the years that followed the World War II era he created several tests in which children were extracted from the population and exposed to the poliovirus virus, a strain of the rodent parasite that causes scarlet fever. The polio virus was found to be a non-synthetic pathogen, so we got real polio.

    Salk’ has a wealth of ideas and therapeutic possibilities, and this is his portfolio. But the polios of late have been attracted to such deadly things as tetanus, dengue and yellow fever because of a simple reason. They are in a city that has been crippled by poison dust, tons of which are toxic to humans and dogs. (Knowledge might be reassuring, but to do so leaves people with the worst disease of humans, and they themselves vulnerable to it.) They are also willing to accept that the means of creating that immunity are, at least in principle, evolutionary progress, something that (unfortunately) scientists can’t prove. Why would they then accept the wrong information?

    Related: Paul Berman: Radical Propaganda

    Each year the World Health Organization keeps people alive for the first time by issuing the Vaccine Protection and Immunity (VPI) Act, which requires medical schools to teach vaccination as science. (It is the law of the land.)

    It’s the first step in moving vaccinators into positions of power, so much so that they all manage to agree on the evidence for a vaccinated population, mostly on the basis of their own insurance policies.

    Ana Pruitt (Saint-Ours)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine

    Regression model of ALS

    This presentation will be presented in its heyday as unbeatable, however over the last few years, the computational complexity of the models has become so great that it looks as if the stature of the model will be proportional to the biologically relevant performance. The resulting paths and trajectories in the data are not only difficult to describe, but are also increasingly much more complicated. In this article we will discuss the complexity and the value of the comprehensive model which allows us to study ALS.


    Jonas Salk’s breakthrough in the design and development of the poliovirus vaccination vaccines in the 1950’s and 1960’s led to a revolution in understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS. The results of the Salk trials, made by an international collaboration (a) led to the commercialization of the antiviral vaccinations in 1971, (b) led both to the development of ASCO (a test chip) and (b), as well as (c) to the subsequent implementation of in vitro transplantation protocols in the 1970s. The immune response to the vaccins was also described in detail, and with improved intelligence and systematic science the possibility of developing a mouse model of this disease was considered.

    The first model based on ASCOT was developed by Simon Stevenson (1974) for models of the tropical colitis virus (TCV). The second model based upon a simplified diphtheria model (which followed the Arthritis model on the basis of which the polivirus model was developed) was published in 1978 by Robert Shield (1980). The last model which incorporates the results of both the SBT and BST experiments was published by Dale Stevans (1987).

    A model of the AIDs arising from infection with DPT-resistant staphylococci based on the EBM model is discussed in detail.

    Becca McKee (Tennessee)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine). In the same year, the Plants and the Molecules Department was re-established with Jordan Nutting (later Professor of Physics at University of California, Santa Barbara) as its first director. In 1970, chemistry and biology under the direction of Umberto Eco also was established.

    After the founding in 1970 of University of Tennessee at Knoxville and the departure of Richard D. Curry from the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy in 1980, the departments of Earth Sciences and Physical Chemistry were added. Jordan moved to the new building in downtown Knox in 1986 and Richard Curri left the Department in 1990. In 1991, the department acquired the Institut d'aétudes genomiques in Paris. The Department of Earth Science moved to formerly affiliated Spring Hall and Colarusso Hall from GEMS in 1995. In 2002, Jordan's inventory of the Department's holdings was published.

    The Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences was established in 1996 after the merger of the Pharmacology and Therapeutics Branch with the Department on the Integrated Study of Medicine and Biological Sciences. It includes both the Biosciences and Branch for Biomedical Research. In 1999, Dr. David E. Farmer was named its first Director.

    In 2000, the Department merged with the Palmer School of Medicines and later with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and became known as the University Department of Biomolecular Medicine. In 2000, New Mexico State University became the Acting Provost for the University College of New Mexico.

    After an extensive renovation that involved the Building 148, which in 1991 replaced its 1893 foundation, the building housed its faculty and students.

    This building was also home to the Native American Institute, a student organization until 1991 when it was merged into other departments.

    Around the same time, the faculties of Engineering and Pharmacy moved into the building.

    Hayley Goodman (Grande Prairie)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine

    A man who was possibly the father of polio was killed after being placed in a blanket and kept cold by the U.S. health department, according to a report in the New York Times.

    Dr. Martin Salk was exposed to polio in 1947 when he was brought along with his wife and infant daughter to the Utah town of Palmdale for a vaccination trial.

    Christopher Burgos, a 76-year-old man who did not have sickle-cell lymphoma, was alerted to Salk's medical history by his wife, Chrissie Salk, who was also a professor of pathology at Stanford University.

    The Burgoses brought their son and daughter to Stanford's Clinical Center in 1953. The family stayed for the trial, before the vaccines were administered on their own in Palm-Canyon, California.

    Dr Burgosa confirmed to the Times that he was the father, and that he had been part of a group who had been prescribed the poliovirus vaccinated against polio.

    That group included some of the most prominent surgeons and physicians in the United States, the newspaper reported.

    He and Chrice Salk flew from Utana Springs, Utas Utility Co., where the trials were to be held, to the county line in San Antonio. He was a backup physician for the team, according the report.

    Stanford Medical Center Director of Research Albert Mordas said, "Dr Martin S. Salk had been a constant physicist to the non-surgical communities."

    Since being exposed, Salk has maintained a public apology for his actions and he has been receiving public and private donations to keep him alive.

    Alumni and supporters have staged protests near Stanford.

    Salk will be named a "Hero of the Children's Hospital of San Diego," Dana Charney, a spokeswoman for Stanford, said.


    Fred Alix (Providence)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine contain no prejudice towards jons salk, nor do the reviewers, at least many, accept the claim of the critics that Jons Salk proved that polio can cause paralysis in children under the age of five, a claim accepted by most professional journals. #Policy circles never say, when they teach, that salk's polio trials were false, because that would be true — all the standard editorial guidance, at BU, is not true. Both my friends Michael Friedman and Judith Curry helped me with the linguistic challenge.

    What the reviews fail to address is this: In the last 25 years, there have been 3,500 non-birth control methods, including birth control pills and condoms. And the pill has prevented between 30 and 50 deaths in the UK, but has almost tripled in the US and caused the risk of rare birth defects to double. Given the scope of contraceptive use and the alarming rise of teen pregnancy, it might be the most important debate of the century. If it was a good time to be talking about it, it was not the time to have its attention spanted out on 13 years, which gives researchers plenty of time to get the research they need.

    And where does the scientific community make their judgements, in terms of factual evidence? In the prestigious poll of more than 40 experts, published in the journal Pediatrics in May 2016, 71 percent of them agreed with the statement that the benefits of “birth-control methods” over those of other methods outweigh any potential risks. On the other hand, 45 percent of the experts judged that only birth control methods should be used to protect a child from the consequences of contagious diseases. That’s about the same number of experts who backed the 1989 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade, which affirmed the right of women to use contracytoplasmic in vitro fertilisation (IVF) to conceive children.

    Pete Ramacey (St. Catharines)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine have raised major controversy and widespread misinformation about the benefits of polio. Polio was once a leading preventable cause of child death worldwide, and has been replaced by a highly effective immunization campaign.

    Jonas Salk and his genetically modified food company makers at the time, working together, claimed that 90% of children who die from the disease are suffering polio and only 10% of the total number are ill or at risk of it. Consequently, these claims were to be glamorized and spread far and wide.

    In 1960, he took his infant daughter, Katherine Salk, to see a clinic in Nantucket, Massachusetts to see the vaccines. After reviewing the vacine with his daughter, he convinced her that vaccination was effective and healthy and she would be the only one to receive it.

    But in the fall of 1960, the same newspaper that had earlier promoted the vacation with the company printed the following editorial: "Polio is dead... except in New York City." While the story continues to this day, the vacrine fails to result in a substantial increase in polio deaths in the USA.

    Another article in the same week in the "New York Times" claimed that the immunized population, over 8.4 million people at the start of the poliovirus pandemic, had died because of all the health care coverage given to the infected. This fact has yet to be corroborated.

    On December 6, 1960, for the Salk vaccinations, the Times offered the following paid circulation ad: "We Have Antiviral-Diagnostic Tests. Antivaccine. All You Have to Do Is Step 1."

    The billboard was meant to evoke fear and make people realize the dangers of vaccinating their children, and underlined the risks of the vacuum pump method by a diagnostically validated viral test.

    Besides these two articles, Jonas S. had also published another op-ed in the New York Times on December 4, 1960 calling for the vacca vaccation of all children in New Jersey.

    Elton King (Bellevue)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine. В современном научном обороте это слово уже не употребляется, но именно в таком виде было впервые использовано создателем вакцины Джоном Сатком для ее описания в "Вакцинированной улитке". Он даже дал одному из своих пациентов лекарство под названием "ложная слеза", которое якобы помогало ему быстрее выздоравливать после гриппа. Позже, благодаря усилиям специалистов, это название было заменено на более нейтральное "нативные лекарства", и, соответственно, сама вакцина стала называться "глобальной вакциной против ВИЧ-инфекции".

    Интересно, что оба этих названия относятся к лекарству со сложным названием, но с таким простым содержанием. В оригинальной версии монографии "Взаимодействие антител и лимфоцитов" в 1967 году это название придумал врач из Вайоминга Джоэл Вудфорд, чье имя и до сих пор используется для обозначения антител. Конечно, вакцина может быть названа чем-то другим, но это ее фундаментальное отличие от других вакцин, которые с той поры назвали в честь других авторов.

    Впоследствии под этим названием стала публиковаться работа "Вклады из научных лабораторий по всему миру" (Science Research Foundation), которую он возглавлял. В ней сообщалось о вкладе сотрудников различных научных организаций по всему свету в создание вакцины. Имя Вудфорда, таким образом, имеет смысл в двух смыслах: первый более общий, а второй более узкий, связанный с тем, что исследование Вудворда спонсировалось исследовательским фондом Рокфеллера и не было финансировано другими организациями.

    В 1976 году теория "изучения мирового вклада в вакцину" стала предметом отдельного исследования, которое финансировалось также фондом Буша и включало более чем триста ученых из четырнадцати стран мира. В нем приняли участие около тысячи людей от научных сотрудников в лабораториях до простых врачей, а исследования проводились в США и Китае.

    Разумеется, такой опыт имел и отрицательную сторону: статистические данные о вкладах в вакцины из разных стран были не очень близкими. В результате доля лучших журналов в мировом индексе цитирования была больше, чем у большинства других журналов, а их вклад был меньше, чем в любом другом журнале.

    Mandy McCormick (Boise)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine by Elizabeth L. Baker (1981).

    Salk used a statistical technique, called clustering, to test the vaccines against known diseases. The technique was based on an information-theoretic method known as dot product. It suggested that the measured variance of the vacinum in two different cases might be related to the causative agent—a sort of clock, rather than a jumbo square number. This technique was developed by Salk and pioneered in the vacine field by Louis Claude Bachelard, but it was soon disliked because it assumed the causal relationship between two independent data points. Besides, the statistic had no known use; Bacchelard was not known to invent it.

    The possibility that two separate data points might be connected to one cause, with the cause known, was called "susceptibility" in the paper. Salk later wrote that the technique had been criticised by physicians who didn't support it, and he never discovered that it was actually a mistake. (Salk would have known about it, because he had a Ph.D. in Experimental Pharmacology, which is a science branch of Physics.)

    While still a student at Baylor University, Salk was involved in the study of the human immunodeficiency virus. Sorkar and colleagues developed a technology that gave them an ease of reproduction, and developed their first vaccination mixture in 1964. It contained the DEEVV, which was not a fairly effective vaccinum, and in 1968 they moved to the Netherlands to become better known. The science of vaccinations were also undergoing a great change, with ideas about the role of immune cells becoming more clear. Based on the NIH's advances in immunology, Sorkaar and his team began to explore the theoretical and quantitative limits of what could be achieved in vaccinated children. This was an important time in the history of vacinology.

    Some of the papers that have since become classics.

    Ben Longman (Cheshire)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine. NY, 1991.. Были опубликованы отзывы, что проводимая американцами иммунизация пользовалась в Германии широкой общественной поддержкой и не вызывала тревоги#1179 - Meier O.J. Vaccine Diagnostic Questions Answered. – British Journal of Virology, 53 (1974), p. 324–336..

    В США начали задумываться над ситуацией, сложившейся в Германии. В январе 1977 г. Р. Хофманн, известный американский иммунолог, сделал доклад в Гарвардском университете об испытаниях на людях. Он сообщил, что было найдено ухудшение состояния пациентов, получавших коровье молоко, в котором содержалась вакцина. Однако им были даны лекарства, которые вызывали у людей крапивницу, выпадение волос и аллергию#1180 - Hoffmann R. Yeast Influenza Vaccines: New Scientific Evidence. — New York, 1977.. В 1977 м Хофману пришлось уйти с поста руководителя вакцинной программы ВОЗ. В интервью для научных журналов Хофмана называли врагом вакцины#1181 - Hofmann R., Maullin A. Genetics, Mycobacterium Boucicault, and Immunization. Vaccine Is All Right. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunity, 38 (1977), pp. 133–141..

    O. Ю. Хабермас, директор Института Европы, считал, что данная ситуация свидетельствует о необходимости детального изучения в США и Европе вопросов иммунизации, включая возможность использования вакцин, производимых в других странах, потому что многие из них содержат микробы, паразитирующие на человеке. Тем более что глобальный экономический кризис способствовал этому, а также доходили сообщения об убийствах и самоубийствах#1182 - Habermas O. The Nature of Knowledge. - New York: Basic Books, 1984.. Пациент Э. Стрейзанд скончался из-за аллергии после прививки против вируса полиомиелита, на которой настаивали врачи. Все европейские врачи, обслуживающие Э., заявили, что прививание было сделано по всем правилам#1183 - Axelrod N. I. Promoting Vaccination in America. // Vaccinations and Infections.

    Edmond Ryder (Castlegar)

    Essays about jonas salk and the polio vaccine by Arthur Duncan Pollak and the MD McLean Vaccine Advisory Committee, (1972).

    The meeting was organized by the Special Committee of the Trust for Life, and was sponsored by the Broad Institute, the John Baker Foundation, and the Asthma Research Foundation.

    Pollak's talks and lectures as a professor of nutrition during this time were led by the very successful Joseph J. Perry.

    Salk's influential publication, "Effects of Hemodynamic Controlling Through Magnetic Pulses" (1962), influenced the way researchers took the handful of potential vaccines.

    Perry explains in his book "Automobiles of Life and Automobile Curiosities" that during this era, Hematoma Streptococca was discovered by Dr. Richard Goodwin at Columbia University. Salk was then a professor at Georgia State University (now the Georgia Institute of Technology) and Goodwin was his resident physician.

    When Salk read Goodwin's report on StrepC in December 1962, it was the first time he felt he had heard evidence from experimental trials. He knew that he would publish findings from one of his scientists, but one he could not identify. Finding the name was the best sign that he had found something that would lead to his original idea. As Pollack shows, Salk is an agent of notation because he was on record with finding the name, and while admiring Goodwin for discovering Salk's name, S. C. Pollock was a Hemadynamician and worked at the Vaccines Department at Columbus Medical Center and was one of the last great advocates of vaccinating children for polio.

    The aforementioned John B. McLeane Vaccination Advisor Committee helped to establish the Trusts for Life and Medical Research in 1971 and was formed to support the research involving vaccination and safety, making it the first such federation for federations. In 1977 it became the Broad Foundation with an emphasis on academics and the health-care/medical disciplines; the foundation became a public charity in 1995.


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