Category Archives: APESSAY


Waste management is an important issue faced by many countries and cities around the world. As populations grow and consumption increases, the amount of waste generated also rises significantly. Traditional waste treatment and disposal methods can cause environmental pollution and waste of resources. Therefore, researchers and companies are working on developing innovative technologies that offer more sustainable solutions. Some of the most promising new waste treatment and disposal technologies include:

Plasma gasification- Plasma gasification is an emerging thermal waste treatment technology that uses plasma torch powered by electricity to gasify solid waste at extremely high temperatures reaching over 2000°C. At such high temperatures, molecular bonds in waste break down and syngas is produced. This syngas can then be used to generate electricity. Plasma gasification efficiently converts over 95% of waste into syngas with minimal emissions and residues. It is a versatile technology that can handle almost any type of municipal solid waste or hazardous waste. Several companies are building and testing large-scale plasma gasification plants.

Biofuel from waste- Another technology aimed at resource recovery from waste is the production of biofuels like renewable natural gas or renewable diesel. Anaerobic digestion and thermal conversion processes are used to break down organic waste into biogas which can then be upgraded into transportation fuels. Companies like Agilyx, Fulcrum BioEnergy, and SC Johnson are pioneering technologies to convert post-recycled municipal solid waste, food waste, agricultural waste etc into drop-in biofuels. Integrating existing waste management infrastructure with biofuel production facilities allows generating renewable energy from waste.

Conversion to hydrogen- Waste-to-hydrogen is an emerging approach focused on producing hydrogen gas through the gasification of municipal solid waste or sewage sludge. The syngas obtained can be further processed to produce hydrogen through techniques like steam methane reforming. Hydrogen produced can be used as a zero-emission fuel in transportation and industrial sectors. Companies like EnviTec Biogas are developing large systems to generate hydrogen alongside electricity through thermal conversion of organic waste streams.

Advanced recycling for plastics- Due to the difficulty and costs involved in traditional mechanical recycling of plastic waste, less than 10% of plastic waste globally gets recycled. New chemical recycling technologies aim to improve this. Companies like Eastman, Vadxx, Synata Bio, and Agilyx are developing advanced recycling processes using techniques like depolymerization, methanolysis and hydrolysis to break plastics down to their basic molecular building blocks which can then be used to produce virgin quality plastic resins and polymers. By allowing recycled content to directly substitute fossil feedstocks in new plastic production, advanced recycling could significantly boost plastic recycling rates.

Digital waste management- Leveraging technologies like IoT sensors, RFID tags, computer vision etc allows implementation of smart waste management solutions. Connected waste bins can detect fill levels and optimize collection routes to improve efficiency. Landfill gas and leachate levels can be digitally monitored. Advanced analytics helps identify waste generation patterns, forecast demand and optimally route trucks. Some cities are piloting digital platforms that allow citizens to book and track waste collection services while generating insights to guide future infrastructure needs. As waste infrastructure shifts towards automation and remote monitoring, digital connectivity opens new frontiers.

Biological technologies- Researchers are also exploring biological and microbiological solutions for sustainable waste management. Methods are being studied to use waste-eating microorganisms like bacteria and fungi to aid in composting and accelerate the natural decomposition of organic materials. Biotechnologies also offer pathways for converting agricultural, forestry and food waste into higher-value bioproducts like bioplastics, solvents, animal feed ingredients, using techniques like fermentation. Advances in synthetic biology and microbial engineering fuels the development of such biological conversion processes.

While these technologies are still under research and development or pilot-stage adoption, they represent promising new directions that can augment today’s waste management infrastructure and allow maximum resource recovery from waste. By diverting organic materials to production of renewable fuels and chemicals, and employing chemical and biological techniques for advanced recycling of plastics, cities of future may significantly reduce the burden on landfills whilst minimizing environmental impact of waste. Integrating digital connectivity can enable optimized operations and planning. Emerging technologies thus provide a pathway for transition towards more sustainable and circular models of waste management.


Telehealth is increasingly becoming an integral part of post-acute care in various settings such as skilled nursing facilities, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, long-term acute care hospitals, and in the home health and hospice care settings. As healthcare moves more towards value-based models that focus on quality outcomes and keeping patients healthy at home whenever possible, telehealth provides opportunities to enhance care coordination, improve access to specialty providers, and reduce readmissions from post-acute care settings back to hospitals. Some of the key ways telehealth is being used in post-acute care include:

Remote Patient Monitoring: Many post-acute care patients, especially those with chronic conditions, can benefit from ongoing remote monitoring of vital signs and symptoms at home. Conditions like congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes and wound care are well-suited for remote monitoring. Devices can track things like blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, weight, and glucose levels and transmit the data via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi to the patient’s clinicians for review. This allows earlier detection of potential issues before they worsen and require a readmission. It also empowers patients to better self-manage their conditions at home with oversight from their care team.

Video Conferencing Visits: Secure video conferencing provides a way for clinicians to remotely “visit” with their post-acute patients to assess their conditions, answer questions and ensure treatment plans are on track for recovery and health maintenance. This is useful for providers to conduct virtual follow-up visits for things like wound care, medication management and therapy progress without requiring an in-person trip back to the facility or specialists’ offices. Therapy telehealth visits allow physical, occupational and speech therapists to remotely guide patients through exercises and provide training.

Specialty Consultations: Accessing specialty provider expertise can sometimes be challenging for post-acute facilities located in rural areas. Telehealth enables on-demand access to cardiologists, dermatologists, neurologists and others to evaluate patients as needed. Specialists can remotely examine patients, diagnose issues, adjust treatment plans and recommend additional testing or interventions to the bedside clinicians. This reduces transfers to hospitals or delays in advanced care. Tele-stroke programs similarly allow rapid neurology evaluations for acute stroke patients in remote facilities.

Discharge Planning & Care Transitions: Care coordinators use video visits to remotely prepare patients and families for discharge to lower levels of care or home. This could involve medication teaching, home safety evaluations, therapy scheduling and answering questions. Post-discharge remote follow ups via telehealth then allow earlier identification of any difficulties and opportunities for intervention to prevent readmissions. Virtual hospital rounding programs also utilize telehealth to better coordinate care as patients transition between acute and post-acute levels of care.

Staff Support & Education: Telehealth provides opportunities for off-site specialists, supervisors and educators to remotely support staff in post-acute facilities. Examples include consultations on complex patients, supervision and feedback on therapy techniques or wound care practices, teaching sessions on new policies/procedures and virtual observation of patient interactions to ensure quality and regulatory compliance. This enhances skills and knowledge while reducing travel time away from patient care duties.

Facility Usage Examples: Some real world examples of telehealth integration in post-acute care include:

A 200-bed skilled nursing facility in New York developed a comprehensive remote patient monitoring program utilizing Bluetooth-enabled devices. It reduced 30-day readmissions by 23% and led to earlier interventions for potential issues.

An inpatient rehabilitation hospital in Texas conducted over 7,500 video therapy and specialty telehealth visits in 2020, allowing continued treatment during the pandemic’s visiting restrictions while avoiding unnecessary transfers.

A home health agency partnered with a major hospital system to launch virtual hospital-at-home programs using remote patient monitoring. Initial data showed readmissions were 57% lower than similar in-patients.

A long-term acute care hospital collaborated with neurologists at a large medical center to run a tele-stroke program. Over 90% of patients received a same-day remote neurology evaluation and management plan compared to average 2 day wait previously.

As policymakers and payers increasingly recognize telehealth’s benefits, its role in post-acute care coordination and disease management will likely expand further in the coming years. Outcomes data thus far indicates telehealth technology can reduce costs while maintaining or improving quality of care and patient/family satisfaction during recovery and transition periods. With clinicians facing workforce shortages as well, telehealth ensures geography is not a barrier to accessing specialists and continued recovery support.


Green building certification programs like LEED, BREEAM, Green Globes and other sustainable building rating systems provide a framework to help optimize the environmental and human health impacts of buildings. Receiving certification demonstrates that a building was designed and built using strategies that improve performance in key areas like energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor air quality, stewardship of resources and more. Some of the top benefits of green building certification include:

Improved Energy Efficiency – Certified green buildings are designed, constructed and operated with energy efficiency top of mind. This includes utilizing more efficient HVAC, lighting and appliances. Studies have found LEED certified buildings use 25-30% less energy compared to conventional buildings. Reducing energy consumption lowers ongoing utility costs for owners and is better for the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel power plants.

Water Savings – Sustainable design prioritizes using water more efficiently both indoors and outdoors. This incorporates high-efficiency plumbing fixtures, drought-resistant landscaping, capturing rainwater, and reuse of greywater. On average, green buildings save 20-30% on water use compared to non-green buildings. With water becoming scarcer in many areas, certification helps future-proof buildings for a more water-constrained world.

Enhanced Indoor Air Quality – Improving indoor environmental quality is a core tenet of green building. This is done through measures like low-emitting materials, enhanced ventilation, monitoring systems, green cleaning policies and bringing more access to outdoor views and natural daylight. Occupants benefit from better indoor air quality which can improve health, wellness and productivity. Various studies have linked improved air quality to reduced absenteeism and healthcare costs.

Reduced Carbon Emissions – As green buildings require less energy to operate, this leads to lower carbon emissions from that reduced energy consumption. Life cycle assessments also account for embodied carbon in building materials and construction processes. On average, LEED certified buildings generate 35% less carbon emissions over a 60 year lifespan versus regular buildings. As the effects of climate change intensify, lower-carbon buildings play an important role in mitigating future impacts.

Resource Efficiency – Sustainability also means using resources more efficiently and conserving raw materials. This can include utilizing construction waste management plans, recycling demolition debris, minimizing the footprint of the building, specifying recycled content and regional materials, and adopting lifecycle approaches to products and materials. Cumulatively this lightens the environmental footprint and steward’s natural resources for future generations.

Enhanced Durability & Resilience – Designing for sustainability means optimizing long-term performance. Green buildings are constructed with durable, high quality products and systems well-suited to withstand local weather events and endure for decades into the future. This longevity also aids disaster resilience against hazards like hurricanes, flooding, wildfires which climate change is exacerbating. Adaptability features can help buildings respond to changing needs over their lifespan too.

Improved Occupant Health & Well-Being – The indoor environments of green buildings foster better physical and mental health. Natural daylight, outdoor views and high air quality boost health, mood and cognition. Biophilic design connects people with nature. Low toxicity materials avoid harmful off-gassing. Acoustic performance supports focus and collaboration. All together these attributes can increase comfort, wellness and job satisfaction among occupants.

Financial & Economic Benefits – While green building may cost marginally more up front, certification delivers notable long-term financial returns. Numerous case studies and analysis have found the economic value of reduced utility and maintenance costs over a building’s lifetime often exceed its higher initial investments within 5-10 years. Green buildings also command rental premiums and increased asset values. At a macro level, green building has been found to provide jobs and stimulate local green economies.

Tenant Demand & Marketing Edge – As the population gains more awareness of sustainability issues and their health impacts, there is rising tenant demand for green indoor environments and office policies. Green certified spaces can command competitive advantages in tenant/user retention and attraction amid growing corporate commitments to sustainability goals. Marketing the certification helps owners appeal to climate-conscious clients and tech-savvy Millennial talent.

In summary – green building certification has evolved into a mainstream and impactful way to enhance sustainability performance across new construction as well as existing building renovations. The holistic benefits outlined here help optimize life cycle costs, operations, demand and value for investors and owners, along with delivering public interest co-benefits like reduced environmental impacts and improved community wellness. As we transition to a low-carbon future, the standard set by third-party rated certifications has never been more important in future-proofing the built environment.


Excel provides users with a large canvas to organize, analyze, and share data using rows and columns in an intuitive grid format. Being able to view information in a tabular format allows users to easily input, calculate, filter, and sort data. The grid structure of Excel makes it simple for people to understand complex data sets and relationships at a glance. This ability to represent vast amounts of data visually and interpret patterns in an efficient manner has contributed greatly to Excel’s utility.

Beyond just viewing and inputting data, Excel’s built-in formulas and functions give users powerful tools to manipulate and derive insights from their information. There are over 400 functions available in Excel covering categories like financial, logical, text, date/time, math/trigonometry, statistical and more. Users can quickly perform calculations, lookups, conditional logic and other analytics that would be tedious to do manually. Excel essentially automates repetitive and complex computations, allowing knowledge workers and analysts to focus more on analysis rather than data wrangling. Some of the most commonly used formulas include SUM, AVERAGE, IF, VLOOKUP and more which many consider indispensable.

In addition to formulas and functions, Excel offers users control and flexibility through features like pivot tables, charts, filtering, conditional formatting and macros. Pivot tables allow users to easily summarize and rearrange large data sets to gain different perspectives. Charts visually represent data through over 50 different chart types including line graphs, pie charts, bar charts and more. Filtering and conditional formatting options enable users to rapidly identify patterns, outliers and focus on the most important subsets of data. Macros give power users the ability to record and automate repetitive tasks. These visualization, analysis and customization tools have made Excel highly customizable for a wide range of use cases across industries.

Excel also enables powerful collaboration capabilities through features like shared workbooks, comments, track changes and its integration with Microsoft 365 apps. Multiple users can work on the same file simultaneously with automatic merging of changes. In-cell comments and tracked changes allow for review and discussion of work without disrupting the original data. And Excel seamlessly integrates with the broader Office 365 suite for additional collaboration perks like co-authoring, shared online storage and integrated communication tools. This has allowed Excel to become the backbone of collaborative work and data management in many organizational departments and project teams.

From a technical perspective, Excel stores information using a proprietary binary file format with theXLS and XLSX extensions that allows for very large file sizes of up to 1 million rows by 16,000 columns. It can manage immense datasets far exceeding what other programs like conventional databases can handle. This capability combined with processing power optimizations has enabled Excel to perform complex analytics on huge data volumes. The software is highly customizable through its extensive macro programming capability using Visual Basic for Applications(VBA). Advanced users have leveraged VBA for automating entire workflows and building specialized Excel applications.

In terms of platform availability, Excel is broadly compatible across Windows, macOS, iOS and web browsers through Microsoft 365 web apps. This wide cross-platform reach allows Excel files to be easily shared, accessed and edited from anywhere using many different devices. The software also integrates tightly with other Windows and Microsoft services and platforms. For businesses already entrenched in the Microsoft ecosystem, Excel has proven to be an indispensable part of their technology stack.

Finally, Excel has earned mindshare and market dominance through its massive library of educational materials, third-party tools and large community online. Courses, tutorials, books and certifications help both beginners and experts continually expand their Excel skillsets. A vast ecosystem of add-ins, templates and specialized software partners further extend Excel’s capabilities. Communities on sites like provide forums for collaboration and knowledge exchange among Excel power users worldwide. This network effect has solidified Excel’s position as a universal language of business and data.

Excel’s intuitive user interface, powerful built-in tools, high data capacity, extensive customization options, collaboration features, cross-platform availability, integration capabilities, large community and decades of continuous product refinement have made it the spreadsheet solution of choice for organizations globally. It remains the most widely deployed platform for organizing, analyzing, reporting and sharing data across all sizes of business, government and education. This unmatched combination of usability and functionality is what cements Excel as one of the most essential software programs in existence today.


Artificial intelligence has the potential to significantly improve and optimize transportation logistics systems. AI applications that leverage machine learning, predictive analytics, and optimization algorithms can help address many of the complex challenges involved in planning and executing efficient transportation of goods and people. Some key ways that AI is already enhancing transportation logistics include:

Route Optimization: Transportation networks involve routing vehicles between numerous pickup and delivery locations subject to timing constraints and other requirements. AI route optimization systems use algorithms to analyze huge amounts of historical and real-time data on locations, demand patterns, traffic conditions, and vehicle attributes to continuously generate the most efficient route plans. This helps maximize fleet utilization, reduce mileage and fuel costs, balance workloads, and better meet service-level commitments. For example, large package delivery companies use AI to optimize daily routes for tens of thousands of drivers based on predicted package volumes and dynamic traffic updates.

Demand Forecasting: Accurately anticipating transportation demand patterns is crucial for procurement, capacity planning, and resource allocation decisions across industries like freight, ride-hailing, public transit, and more. AI-powered demand forecasting models apply time series analysis, neural networks, and other machine learning techniques to historical usage and external indicator data to generate highly accurate short and long-term demand projections. These enable optimization of pricing, fleet sizing, facility locations, inventory levels and more based on predicted needs.

Supply Chain Visibility: Effective transportation management requires end-to-end visibility into inventory levels, orders, fleet locations, and other aspects of complex supply chain networks. AI is enhancing visibility through technologies like computer vision, geospatial analytics, and sensor data fusion. For example, object detection algorithms applied to images and videos from cameras in warehouses, trucks and drones help provide real-time insights into inventory levels, activities at distribution centers, traffic conditions impacting transit times and more.

Predictive Maintenance: Downtime for maintenance and repairs greatly impacts transportation efficiency and costs. AI is helping to maximize vehicle and equipment uptime through predictive maintenance approaches. Machine learning models analyze operational data streams from sensors embedded in vehicles, infrastructure and other assets to detect anomalies indicating pending equipment failures or performance issues. This enables proactive repairs and parts replacements to be scheduled before breakdowns occur.

Dynamic Routing: Real-time AI-powered routing optimization is enhancing dynamic ride-hailing, same-day delivery, and other transportation services where routes must adapt rapidly based on constantly changing conditions. Machine learning algorithms process live traffic, order, and vehicle location updates to dynamically reroute drivers as needed to optimize new pickups, avoid congestion and reduce idle time between trips. This helps maximize revenue per vehicle and service levels.

Automated Processes: AI is automating previously manual transportation and logistics tasks to reduce costs and free up human workers for more strategic roles. Examples include using computer vision for automated load tracking, natural language processing for chatbots to answer customer questions, and robotics for autonomous material handling equipment in warehouses. AI is also powering the automation of complex multi-step transportation management functions like dispatching, order consolidation, real-time capacity adjustments and more.

Autonomous Vehicles: Longer term, autonomous vehicle technologies enabled by AI will revolutionize transportation logistics. Self-driving trucks, delivery drones and robotaxis will allow goods and people to be transported more safely and efficiently with optimized routing and platooning. Autonomy will reduce labor costs while increasing vehicle utilization rates. It also enables new on-demand mobility services and just-in-time logistics approaches reliant on autonomous last-mile delivery. While large-scale implementation of autonomous logistics fleets faces technical and regulatory challenges, AI-powered vehicles are already enhancing functions like highway piloting, depot operations and dynamic routing.

Machine learning algorithms, predictive models, computer vision systems, natural language interfaces and other AI technologies are unlocking new possibilities for logistics optimization across industries and modes of transportation. Challenges remain around data quality, scalability, integration complexity, and developing human-AI collaboration best practices. As transportation companies continue investing in AI-driven solutions and building expertise in applying these technologies, the potential for transportation logistics transformation and efficiency gains is immense. AI will be a core driver of the future of intelligent transportation systems and smart supply chain management. With further advances, AI-powered logistics may one day approach the optimal efficiency of theoretical planning models while maintaining required levels of resilience, adaptability and safety.