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Power Automate allows users to mark their workflow actions as comments to help document the flow without actually running any logic. This can be very useful for leaving notes for yourself and others about the purpose and flow of the automation without affecting its execution.

To mark an action as a comment in Power Automate, simply select the action you wish to comment out and then click the “Comment” icon on the tool panel on the right side of the designer screen. This will add comment brackets around the action title to visually indicate it is now a comment only and will not run when the flow is triggered.


For power users who are developing complex workflows with many conditional branches and loops, using commented actions is a great way to temporarily remove sections of logic while testing other parts of the flow. The commented actions will remain visually in the designer so you don’t lose your place but will be ignored during any test runs or when the flow is activated. This allows for iterative development and troubleshooting of complex automations.

Some key things to note about commented actions in Power Automate:

  • Any action can be commented out, including things like HTTP requests, trigger actions, logic flows etc. The comment formatting will be applied universally.
  • Commented actions will appear grayed out in the designer visually to distinguish them from active actions.
  • When running a test of the flow or when live, commented actions will be skipped and will not execute any logic or API calls contained within them.
  • To uncomment an action and re-activate it, simply click the “Comment” icon again on the right toolbar. This will remove the comment brackets.
  • Commented actions do not affect the overall workflow sequencing and connections to subsequent actions. The flow will skip commented steps but continue to following actions as designed.
  • You can comment and uncomment actions repeatedly as needed while developing and troubleshooting a complex flow in the designer window.
  • Well commented flows can help future users, including yourself, understand the overall logic and purpose of each section more easily when revisiting the automation workflow later.

One example of how commenting actions can help is if you have a long running or complex conditional branch that you want to temporarily remove from execution while testing a different logic path. To do this, simply comment out the entire offending section by commenting each individual action within it.


Then you can run test instances of the flow without that logic executing at all so you can isolate other issues. Once the alternative code path is validated, you can then just as easily uncomment that whole section to reactivate it for full flow testing.

For conditional branches especially, commenting unused logic paths can be invaluable during development and troubleshooting processes. Things like if/else blocks allow multiple options that may not all be fully ready to be live at once. By commenting unneeded options temporarily, you get a cleaner testing experience.

Some automation developers also use heavy commenting as an internal documentation practice within their flows. Placing summaries, instructions or explanations as commented actions helps provide important context when revisiting complex automations down the line. This supports better long term maintenance and understanding of sophisticated workflows.

The ability to comment actions in Power Automate provides a potent way to iteratively build and test complicated logic flows. It maintains your full automation design visually while allowing selective execution during development. Proper use of commented steps aids the incremental development approach for complex solutions. Over time, well commented automations also function as internal self-documentation assets. It is a best practice that power users of the platform should learn to effectively leverage.


While commenting actions does not affect execution sequencing, it’s still good practice to double check that any dependent logic or requirements further in the flow still make sense when sections are temporarily commented out. Verify data consistency and expected behavior across all test cases to avoid unexpected side effects from skipped logic steps.

There may be some advanced automation scenarios where commenting is not ideal or possible, such as workflows using custom connector APIs that have strict expected payloads. In general though, taking advantage of commenting freely throughout development is highly recommended for complex Power Automate flows as a best practice. It promotes clean, iterative design and makes debugging problems and validating logic paths much more efficient.

Using action comments is a core capability in Power Automate that power users should be leveraging heavily, especially when building and testing sophisticated multi-step conditional logic flows. It keeps your full workflow visually intact while enabling selective execution control that is invaluable during development cycles. With proper usage of commenting, intricate automation logic can be designed, validated and maintained in a much more organized and incremental fashion over time.

To mark any action as a comment in Power Automate, simply select it and click the “Comment” icon on the right toolbar. This allows design and testing flexibility that aids complex workflow development greatly. Be sure to also uncomment sections as needed when validating alternative logic paths. Properly applying action commenting is an essential technique for developing robust and maintainable business automations in the Power Automate platform.


The rise of large multi-national corporations and increased economic interdependence between nations has shifted economic power away from nation-states towards very large companies operating across borders. As companies have globalized their operations through foreign direct investments and international supply chains, their revenues and profits have grown exponentially, in some cases exceeding the GDP of many smaller countries. Companies like Walmart, Google, Shell, and Toyota now exert significant influence not just through their economic roles but also through their lobbying efforts and ability to threaten moving investments if governments pursue policies that negatively impact corporate profits. This shift in power away from countries to very large border-spanning corporations is one of globalization’s most consequential impacts on geopolitics.

The rise of new global economic powers like China, India and Brazil has also re-balanced global economic influence away from the traditional Western powers. In the 1970s, the US, Western Europe nations and Japan accounted for around 70% of global GDP measured by PPP. As many developing nations pursued rapid export-oriented growth through integration into global supply chains and the world trading system under globalization, their share of global economic output expanded significantly. According to IMF estimates, developing nations as a whole accounted for around 50% of global GDP measured by PPP in 2017, with emerging economies like China and India challenging traditional powers on the global stage through their rapidly rising economic output and influence. While political power has still been concentrated in the West so far, globalization has enabled the rise of new global economic powers seeking a greater say commensurate with their economic weight.

The interconnectedness created by globalization has reduced the autonomy of smaller nation-states to determine their own economic policies, as global markets now intensely scrutinize every domestic decision of countries for its global spillover effects. Bond markets, equity markets, trade and capital flows now react instantaneously to any hint of unexpected policy changes worldwide due to the speed of information transmission. Consequently, governments in countries have a significantly reduced policy space to carry out domestic economic measures like currency devaluations, interest rate changes or subsidies without sparking an adverse market reaction. Big emerging economies have also gained through their dominance in setting global prices for key commodities like oil that smaller import-dependent countries have less control over. This reduction in policy autonomy for smaller nations and shift in influence towards larger countries and global markets/corporations is another way globalization has reshaped the global balance of power.

By enabling the free flow of information worldwide, globalization has empowered non-state actors and civil society groups in challenging the power of authoritarian nation-states in new ways. The sharing of information across borders through the rapid spread of technology like the Internet, satellites and smartphones has enabled activists, journalists and citizen networks to much more easily coordinate and publicize instances of human rights violations or oppressive policies within closed countries. They can generate global attention and pressure, countering attempts by such regimes to censor internal dissent or limit outside scrutiny of their actions. Several authoritarian regimes that sought to control the flow of information within their borders have found such control increasingly difficult due to globalization. This has given more clout to outsider advocacy and civil society groups globally relative to the power of some repressive states to operate unchecked internally.

The far-reaching nature of many transnational issues like climate change, pandemics, terrorism and migration that have arisen or been exacerbated due to increasing global connectedness have also empowered international organizations to play a stronger role. Given that such cross-border challenges ignore geopolitical boundaries and can only be addressed through global cooperation, issues like coordinating worldwide actions against climate change have bolstered the standing of multilateral forums and treaty-based mechanisms like the UN. International cooperation under the aegis of such forums involves compromise and consensus-building that dilutes pure unilateral power play by dominant states on such transnational issues. This has seen a meaningful shift in global influence towards multilateral processes and organizations over specific nation-states.

Over the past few decades globalization has significantly transformed the existing distribution of power structures in the world in these major ways – through the rise of corporate giants stretching beyond borders, the enhanced global economic influence of emerging powers, the reduced policy autonomy of smaller states, the empowerment of transnational non-state actors and civil society groups, and the boosting of multilateral forums to address cross-border challenges. While certain nations and economic blocs still maintain disproportionate strength, globalization has arguably reduced concentration of power by enabling the rise of new actors and reshaping the terms of global policymaking in a more complex multi-polar direction with both opportunities and risks ahead.


California has experienced a rapid increase in solar power generation in recent years as more homeowners and businesses have installed rooftop solar panels. While this growth in solar power is helpful in increasing renewable energy usage and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has also created some challenges for managing the electrical grid. One such challenge is oversupply situations that can occur during midday hours on sunny days.

During the midday hours on clear sunny days, solar power generation may peak when demand for electricity is relatively low as most homes and businesses do not need as much power when the sun is highest in the sky. This can potentially lead to situations where solar power production exceeds the immediate demand and needs to be curtailed or stored somehow to maintain grid stability. If too much power is being generated but not used at a given moment, it can cause issues like overloading transformers or requiring more natural gas plants to remain on but idled just in case their power is needed.

To address this oversupply problem, California regulators and utilities have implemented several programs and policies in recent years. One strategy has been to encourage the deployment of battery storage systems at both utility-scale and behind-the-meter at homes and businesses. Large utility-scale batteries can absorb excess solar power during the middle of the day and then discharge that stored power later in the afternoon or evening when solar production falls off but demand rises again. Over 100 megawatts of utility-scale batteries have been installed so far in California with many more planned.

Similarly, rebate and incentive programs have promoted the adoption of residential and commercial battery storage systems to go along with rooftop solar. These smaller batteries can store midday solar production for use later in the home or business when the sun goes down. About 100 megawatts of behind-the-meter storage had been deployed in California homes and firms up until 2021. The state has set targets to reach 3,000 megawatts of storage deployment across all sectors by 2025.

Utilities have also implemented time-variant pricing and demand response programs to help align solar generation with demand patterns. Dynamic pricing rates that are higher during mid-afternoon create an economic incentive for customers to shift discretionary electricity usage to morning or evening hours. Meanwhile, demand response programs pay participants to voluntarily reduce or shift their power consumption during times of predicted oversupply. This could involve actions like pre-cooling buildings earlier in the day.

On the supply side, California’s main grid operator (CAISO) has developed processes to curtail solar generation when necessary to prevent oversupply situations. Curtailment is considered a last resort option due to the lost renewable energy production. CAISO’s market design also facilitates exporting excess solar power to other western states during oversupply events. Interstate transmission lines allow California to ship midday solar surpluses to nearby states with higher afternoon demand.

An emerging approach is boosting electricity demand specifically during the midday solar peak. One strategy is encouraging the deployment of electric vehicles and incentivizing their charging to occur during midday hours when solar output is highest. Two-way “smart” charging could allow EV batteries to absorb excess solar and later discharge to the grid as mobile energy storage. Another demand boosting concept involves using solar power to produce green hydrogen fuel through electrolysis processes that could run most intensively from midday to early afternoon.

Overall, California is employing a portfolio of technical, market-based and policy mechanisms to more effectively manage the integration of high levels of variable solar power onto the grid. By aligning electricity supply and demand patterns through strategies like battery storage deployment, time-variant rates, interstate trade and intentional midday demand boosting, the state aims to maximize the value of its abundant solar resources while maintaining a reliable and low-carbon electricity system. Challenges remain but California continues to pioneer solutions that can inform best practices for other regions scaling up renewable energy.


Geothermal power plants tap into underground reservoirs of hot water or steam found deep below the Earth’s surface to generate electricity. These reservoirs are accessed through wells drilled into geothermal fields located in areas with high underground temperatures. There are two main types of geothermal fields – hydrothermal and hot dry rock.

Hydrothermal reservoirs contain naturally occurring hot water or steam trapped in porous rock or underground water reservoirs. To access this, geothermal plants drill production and injection wells into known hydrothermal fields. Production wells are drilled to depths ranging from 1-3 km and bring the hot water or steam to the surface. Injection wells are also drilled and are used to return cooled geothermal fluid back underground after it has passed through the power plant.

The location of these hydrothermal reservoirs is identified through extensive geological, geophysical, and geochemical exploration of areas with recent volcanic activity and/or nearby magma chambers. Areas like the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean or volcanic zones in Iceland and Africa have many of the highest temperature hydrothermal fields accessible for geothermal power production. Once promising locations are identified, test wells are drilled to establish temperature gradients and find productive zones of permeability and fluid saturation in the bedrock.

After exploration identifies commercial quantities of recoverable geothermal resources, power plant development begins. Production wells capable of handling high temperatures are carefully drilled using drilling mud to prevent damage from heat. Well casings made of stainless steel, Inconel, or other corrosion resistant alloys are installed to line the wellbore and prevent collapse while withstanding high pressures and temperatures. Downhole instrumentation is also installed to monitor reservoir conditions and performance over the life of the plant.

Once drilling is complete, a pipeline network transports the geothermal fluid from the production wells to the power plant for utilization. Typical geothermal fluid reservoir temperatures can range from 150-350°C. Lower temperature hydrothermal resources between 90-150°C can also be used with binary cycle power plants utilizing an additional heat exchange process. Upon arrival at the plant, geothermal fluid is first passed through separators which separate steam, liquid, and other gases. The steam is then used to drive turbines which spin generators to produce electricity, just like in conventional steam plants.

After passing through the turbines, the lower pressure steam is condensed back into liquid form using cooling towers. The geothermal fluid now at a lower temperature is piped back underground through the injection wells to be reheated by the hot reservoir rock. Careful reservoir management is needed as injection returns some of the fluid but also cools the reservoir if not balanced by natural reinjection. Sustaining sufficient reservoir pressures and temperatures over the 25-30 year lifetime of the plant is important for continuous power generation.

With hot dry rock resources, the naturally fractured basement rock itself is the target reservoir without naturally occurring fluids. Special techniques are required to access this type of resource. Long injection and production wells extending 2-5 km deep are drilled parallel to each other into the hot basement rock. Then a procedure called hydraulic stimulation is used to fracture open the rock and connect the two wells by pumping water or other fluids down one well under high pressure. This creates an artificial reservoir where once established, water can be circulated and heated between the wells to temperatures of 150-300°C suitable for power production. These engineered reservoirs are still experimental and require further research to prove commercial viability compared to hydrothermal resources.

Geothermal power plants access vast subsurface heat reservoirs through carefully engineered well systems. Hydrothermal reservoirs containing naturally occurring hot fluids are the most developed resource and provide base load renewable power by tapping into underground zones of permeable rock saturated with hot water or steam. Future potential also lies in creating engineered reservoirs within hot basement rocks if techniques for artificially enhancing permeability and conductively heating injected fluids can be proven on a utility scale. Geothermal energy harnesses the Earth’s natural internal heat for power generation utilizing sustainable reservoirs that can last for decades.


One of the biggest challenges is managing project complexity. Power electronics systems often involve integrating multiple electrical and electronic components together. This requires understanding concepts from various disciplines like circuit design, control systems, signal processing, thermal management, and electromagnetic compatibility. The complexity can be overwhelming for students who are exposed to these topics for the first time in a capstone project. To address this, students need to break down the overall system into well-defined subsystems and modules. They should identify key components and interfaces upfront and design the subsystems to integrate seamlessly. Establishing clear communication among team members is also important to properly coordinate the interdependent tasks.

Another major challenge is ensuring hardware and system reliability. Power electronics deals with transferring and controlling electric power, so safety and reliability are critical. Students may face issues like components overheating, short circuits, electromagnetic interference, inaccurate sensing, or unstable control loops during testing. Thorough simulation, prototyping, and review processes need to be established before live experiments to catch and address reliability problems early. Safety protocols must also be developed and followed diligently during hardware testing and demonstration. Proper documentation of designs, hardware schematics, software/firmware code, test plans and results help future users replicate and build upon the work.

Selecting appropriate components within design constraints can also be difficult. Power electronics often requires specialized high power semiconductors, EMI filters, sensors, actuators etc. Students need to carefully consider technical specifications, costs, availability and long term support while selecting these components. Overly complex or unproven designs should be avoided. Commercial-off-the-shelf components are preferable over custom designs when possible. Working closely with industry advisors helps expand component knowledge and get feedback on design selections.

Managing project scope and schedule are perennial challenges, especially if working with strict academic timelines. Unrealistic scopes lead to rushed, half-baked implementations while gold-plating features undermines the learning experience. Early definition of clear goals, deliverables and prioritization help ensure substantive progress within constrained time periods. Tracking tasks, assigning ownership, setting milestones and conducting periodic reviews keep projects on schedule. Iteratively developing and testing subsystems prevents last minute problems. Good documentation enhances reproducibility and transition of work.

Prototyping on hardware often exposes unexpected issues that disrupt schedules. Troubleshooting hardware/software bugs taxes limited student resources and time. Extensive simulation and bench testing before live experiments reduces bugs. Having industry mentorship aids quick issue diagnosis. Keeping prototypes simple yet representative allows iterative refinement. Modular designs facilitate component swap outs without rework. Keeping design options open through early prototyping prevents corner cutting later. Maintaining organized lab spaces, tools and test fixtures eases troubleshooting.

Effectively communicating complex technical work to diverse audiences tests communication skills. Concisely conveying abstract concepts, articulating assumptions, explaining trade-offs and critical analysis requires practice. Students need experience communicating clearly through documentation, demonstration, presentations and publications targeted for faculty, industry panels, and wider audiences. Advisor feedback helps polish these skills which are invaluable for future careers. Practicing simplified yet accurate explanations is key.

These are some of the major challenges students may experience in power electronics capstone projects. Proper planning, systematic implementation, peer-collaboration, mentor guidance and refinement through iterations help overcome these hurdles and yield substantive learning outcomes. The experience exposes students to practical engineering issues beyond textbooks, better preparing them for careers in this growing industry. Power electronics projects provide rich opportunities for hands-on applications of technical knowledge while developing vital professional skills.