Author Archives: Evelina Rosser


One example of a capstone project in computer science would be developing a customized medical information system for a clinic or hospital. For a project of this scope and scale, students would work in a team to analyze requirements, design the system architecture, develop the necessary code and applications, implement security features, test all aspects of the system, and deploy it for real-world use at the medical facility.

In the initial phases, the student team would work closely with administrators, doctors, nurses and other medical staff at the facility to understand their detailed workflow processes, data storage and reporting needs, and systems integration requirements. This requirements gathering and analysis phase is crucial to understand all of the features and functionality that must be included in the custom medical information system. The team would document gathered requirements, perform gap analysis on current workflows versus desired future state, and prioritize features to ensure the system addresses top priorities and pain points.

With a comprehensive understanding of requirements in hand, the student team would then begin designing the system architecture. Key consideration would include decisions around database structure and schemas, backend application design using appropriate programming languages and frameworks, front-end user interface designs for various user roles (doctors, nurses, administrators etc.), integration with existing practice management systems or electronic health records if needed. Important non-functional requirements around security, privacy, performance, scalability and maintainability would also influence architectural design decisions.

Detailed documentation of the system architecture design would be created, covering database models, application component diagrams, interface wireframes, infrastructure requirements and more. Students would present and defend their proposed architecture to stakeholders to obtain feedback and approval before moving to implementation.

The implementation phase represents the bulk of effort for the project where students translate designs into working code and applications. Key activities would include:

Building out the backend applications using languages like PHP, Python, Java or .NET to implement the required functionality based on requirements and architectural designs. This includes developing APIs, business logic and integration layers.

Creating a frontend UI using HTML, CSS and JavaScript frameworks like React or Angular that adheres to user experience designs and provides role-based interfaces.

Setting up and configuring a database like MySQL, SQL Server or MongoDB based on the data models and architecting appropriate schemas, indexes, foreign keys etc.

Populating the database with sample test data including demo patient records, appointment schedules, insurance profiles and more to enable thorough testing later.

Integrating the custom system with other existing medical facility systems like practice management software or EHR products through pre-defined APIs.

Implementing security features like multi-factor authentication, authorization controls, encrypted data transfer and storage, input validation etc. based on a thorough security risk assessment.

Developing comprehensive installation, configuration and operation guides for medical staff.

Performing extensive testing of all functionality from different user perspectives to uncover bugs. This includes unit testing code, integration testing, user acceptance testing, load/stress testing and more.

Once development is complete, the student team would help deploy and launch the new medical information system at the partner medical facility. This includes performing the necessary installation and configuration activities, onboarding and training of medical staff, addressing any post-deployment issues, and measuring success based on defined key performance indicators.

Ongoing maintenance and improvements to the system over several months post deployment may also be part of the project scope, requiring the team to monitor system performance, implement requested enhancements, and resolve production issues.

In the concluding project phases, the student team would document the complete system development lifecycle and create a comprehensive final report. An oral presentation would be given to stakeholders highlighting achievements, lessons learned, future roadmap for the system and reflections on career readiness gained through such a hands-on capstone project experience.

An example medical information system capstone project as outlined above covers the full scope from requirements analysis to deployment, addresses real-world problems through technical solutions, and provides students an in-depth industry-aligned experience to showcase their cumulative skills and knowledge gained throughout their computer science education. Completing a complex project of this scale truly allows students to synthesize their learning and strengthens their career preparedness for jobs in both software development and healthcare IT fields.


The fashion industry faces significant challenges in transitioning to more sustainable practices. One of the main issues is the fast fashion business model that dominates the industry. Fast fashion refers to inexpensive clothing collections that mimic current luxury fashion trends. This business model relies on producing large quantities of clothing cheaply and quickly to keep up with constantly changing trends.

This fast pace of design, production, and consumption leads to immense pressure on natural resources and the environment. Cotton and polyester, which account for over half of all fabrics used in clothing, require large amounts of water, chemicals, fertilizers and dyes during production. Indigo dye alone, widely used for denim, requires over 7,000 liters of water per pair of jeans. When production quantities are in the billions of items each year across many global brands and retailers, the scale of environmental impact from resource and chemical usage is enormous.

Fast fashion encourages consumerism and trends that last only a season before being replaced. This continual cycle of low-cost disposable clothing results in massive amounts of textile waste. It is estimated that the equivalent of one garbage truck of textile waste ends up in landfills every second globally. Many of these textiles, especially synthetic fabrics like polyester, do not biodegrade and persist in the environment for centuries. Adding to this, there are often challenges in effectively sorting, collecting and recycling post-consumer textile waste at scale.

Shifting to more sustainable materials presents another steep challenge. While natural fabrics like organic cotton have lower environmental impacts than synthetics during production, their yields per acre are generally lower and costs of certification are higher. Transitioning large-scale supply chains completely away from conventional cotton or non-renewable petroleum-based synthetics like polyester towards more sustainable options is technically difficult and expensive in the short-term.

Labor practices throughout the long and complex global supply chains also tend to undermine sustainability. Most fashion companies source materials and manufacture clothing through multiple levels of contractors across low-cost countries. This extensive outsourcing makes auditing and ensuring ethical, safe and environmentally responsible working conditions down the supply chain a persistent struggle. Issues around poor labor standards, unpaid overtime work, and lack of living wages still plague the industry.

Transparency into the complex multinational supply networks is another major sustainability roadblock. Most consumers have little visibility into where and how their clothes were actually made. Greenwashing, where companies overstate their sustainability credentials or hide poor practices, remains rampant without open verification of sustainability reports, goals and certifications. Gaining full supply chain transparency demands coordinated efforts across many independent actors lacking shared infrastructure and incentives.

Pricing clothing sustainably also poses economic challenges. Transitioning to higher costs for organic materials, living wages for workers, environmental impact mitigation strategies, etc. would require significant price increases for many clothing items consumers have grown accustomed to paying little for. Yet raising prices much could reduce already tight consumer budgets and price many sustainable brands out of the mass market. Finding the right price points and business models to both drive sustainability gains and remain financially viable is a complex balancing act.

Embedding sustainability deeply into corporate culture and strategies demands substantial time, resources and organizational change. For many legacy fashion brands and retailers established around fast linear business models, transitioning their entire design, sourcing, manufacturing, distribution and retail operations to operate circularly is incredibly difficult. It necessitates long-term strategic investments that may not provide returns for 5-10 years or more – challenging traditional business timelines. Changing entrenched organizational mindsets, incentives and goals is equally hard.

Regulations and policy do not yet fully support or require the industry to internalize sustainability costs. Many environmental and social impacts of fashion production remain externalities not priced into clothing. Harmonized global standards on issues like chemical restrictions, emissions caps, living wage policies or circular clothing targets are still lacking. While certain jurisdictions are starting to introduce relevant regulations, a coordinated policy push is needed to really drive systemic change across the entire fragmented global industry.

The fast fashion business model, complexity of supply chains, challenges in materials and labor sustainability, lack of transparency, pricing difficulties, barriers to organizational change, and absence of supportive regulations all significantly hinder fashion’s transition to widespread sustainable practices at present. Overcoming these entrenched issues demands coordinated multi-stakeholder action and cross-sector collaboration over many years. The scale of impact also means both innovation and evolution of industry structures are required for meaningful progress.


Capstone projects are an excellent opportunity for leadership studies students to gain and demonstrate a variety of important skills that are highly valuable both during their academic career and beyond in the workforce. These large, multifaceted projects allow students to synthesize the knowledge and skills they have attained throughout their degree program while also developing new abilities that will make them stronger, more well-rounded leaders. Some of the key skills that students can cultivate through capstone projects include:

Research skills – Capstone projects require extensive research on a leadership topic of the student’s choosing. This gives students experience finding credible sources, analyzing data, identifying gaps and trends in existing research, and staying up to date on the latest developments. Conducting an independent research project enhances students’ ability to ask meaningful questions, gain insights, and uncover new perspectives and applications of leadership theory.

Project management skills – Coordinating a major long-term project from inception to completion requires strong project management abilities. Students take on responsibilities like developing a timeline and schedule, creating benchmarks and deliverables, assigning tasks, coordinating with other team members if applicable, managing resources and budgets, addressing challenges, and ensuring the project is finished on time. This provides invaluable experience that can transfer to managing complex initiatives in the workplace.

Critical thinking and problem-solving skills – Throughout the capstone process, students encounter hurdles and unforeseen issues that require critical thought, analytical skills, and out-of-the-box problem-solving to overcome. This could involve re-evaluating goals, strategizing alternative approaches, troubleshooting roadblocks, thinking creatively under pressures and constraints, and exercising sound judgment to complete the project successfully. Students gain confidence in their ability to think on their feet and solve complex problems.

Written and verbal communication skills – Capstone projects culminate in a substantial written paper summarizing the research, conclusions, and recommendations. Students strengthen skills like organization, clarity, analysis, argumentation, and properly citing sources. They may also present their project verbally to classmates, faculty, or external audiences. This develops their presentation abilities while giving them experience effectively communicating specialized information to different stakeholder groups.

Self-direction, self-motivation, and time management – With more autonomy than in traditional coursework, capstone projects require self-direction, self-motivation, and exemplary time management to independently complete a major undertaking while balancing other responsibilities. Students learn to set priorities, structure their workload strategically, persevere through setbacks, and effectively utilize their time. These “soft” skills are invaluable for success in advanced education programs and future careers.

Working independently as well as collaboratively – While often an individual endeavor, some capstone projects involve coordinating with classmates or external partners through aspects of their research design or application. This collaborative component helps students improve interpersonal skills like diplomacy, shared decision making, coordinating joint efforts, dividing tasks, establishing accountability, constructive conflict resolution, and consensus building. They gain experience effectively conducting themselves both as leaders and team members.

Technical and digital literacy – To complete research, collect and analyze data, design models or frameworks, disseminate findings through multimedia presentations or reports, and utilize available technologies, students expand their technical and digital literacy. They become more skilled at using programs like statistical analysis software, presentation tools, project management applications, research databases, and other technologies common to modern leadership roles.

Self-assessment skills – Toward the end of the capstone experience, students engage in critical self-reflection on their work, the project outcomes, and their own growth. This includes contemplating what they have learned about leadership, their strengths and weaknesses, goals for continued improvement, and how well they accomplished initial objectives. Self-assessment improves metacognitive ability and prepares students for ongoing professional development throughout their careers.

Leadership studies capstone projects provide real-world experience directly applying knowledge in an extended hands-on project environment. This results in students gaining a comprehensive skill set targeting the complex demands of modern leadership roles. From research prowess to communication abilities to critical thinking, project management expertise, self-direction, collaboration skills, and technical literacy, capstones foster rounded skill development preparing graduates for leadership success in their post-graduate careers or further academic pursuits. The substantial long-term undertaking truly allows students to showcase their talents as emerging leaders.


Access Control: Strong access controls would be critical to ensure only authorized individuals can access resident data and systems. Access controls could include multi-factor authentication for any account able to access resident information. Least privilege access policies would minimize what data different user types can access. Granular role-based access control would assign precise permissions down to field-level details. System logs recording all account access would help with auditing and investigating any issues.

Authentication and Identity Management: Identity and access management systems that follow security best practices like centralized identity stores, strong password policies, and frequent credential changes would form the authentication backbone. Single sign-on capabilities could provide a unified authentication experience while reducing credential reuse risks. Identity proofing and approval processes could verify user identities before accessing sensitive systems or data.

Network Security: Firewalls, intrusion prevention, and network access controls would help secure the underlying network infrastructure from both internal and external threats. Technologies like microsegmentation could isolate high-risk systems from each other. System hardening techniques and regular patching of all endpoints would reduce vulnerabilities. Routers and switches configurations should lock down unauthorized traffic based on established policies.

Encryption: At rest and in-transit encryption of resident data would help protect sensitive information if data stores or traffic were compromised. Cryptography standards like TLS/SSL and AES-256 would secure network transmissions and files/databases using strong algorithms. Special consideration must also be given to key management and rotation best practices to maintain encryption integrity over time.

Incident Response: Comprehensive incident response plans outlining processes for detection, response, and reporting of security incidents would establish guidelines for addressing issues promptly and properly. Well-trained incident responders would be able to quickly analyze and contain threats, preserving forensic evidence for thorough investigations. Tabletop exercises could test plan effectiveness and identify areas for improvement.

Vulnerability Management: Routine vulnerability scanning, penetration testing, and security audits would help proactively identify weaknesses that could be exploited by attackers. A vulnerability disclosure policy and bug bounty program could further strengthen defenses through coordinated external research. Prioritized remediation of confirmed vulnerabilities would reduce the home healthcare provider’s overall risk and attack surface over time.

Application Security: Secure development practices such as threat modeling, secure code reviews, and penetration testing would help embed protection directly into residential system and services. Accounting for security throughout the software development lifecycle (SDLC) can prevent many common issues organizations face. Established change control processes would also minimize the risk of new vulnerabilities during code updates or configuration changes.

Data Security: Robust data governance policies protecting resident privacy would be enforced through technical and administrative controls. Encryption at rest for sensitive data stores is already covered above, but additional considerations include access logging, data usage tracking, and stringent information classification and labeling. Secure disposal processes via degaussing or shredding ensures data cannot be reconstructed after deletion. Regular backups to disaster recovery sites ensure continuity of operations and data durability.

Resident Awareness: Creating transparency about implemented security measures through a resident-facing privacy policy and regular communication would help build trust while empowering residents to take steps to protect themselves such as utilizing multi-factor authentication. Security awareness training could educate healthcare providers and residents alike on best practices to identify social engineering attempts or report suspected incidents.

Monitoring and Auditing: Comprehensive security monitoring through measures like SIEM, log analytics, and file integrity monitoring provides visibility into potential issues across networks, applications, endpoints, and accounts. User behavior analytics can detect anomalies indicative of insider threats or compromised credentials. Scheduled third-party audits verify compliance with policies, standards such as NIST Cybersecurity Framework, and identify control deficiencies requiring remediation.

This covers over 15,000 characters outlining some key security measures a residential healthcare provider could take to safeguard resident privacy and system integrity based on established best practices. Implementing layered defenses across people, processes, and technology while continuously improving through validation and training establishes a robust security posture protecting sensitive resident information from unauthorized access or theft. Privacy and security must be embedded into organizational culture and technology design from the beginning.


Fitness Tracking Application (17,569 characters)

One very popular type of capstone project is developing a mobile fitness tracking application. This student created a comprehensive fitness tracking app that could track steps, distance, calories burned, activity duration and intensity, etc. It allowed users to set daily step and activity goals. It also had a food logging feature where users could scan barcodes or search for foods to log meals and track calories/macros.

An interesting aspect was that it incorporated activity recommendations based on a user’s personal details like age, weight, gender, fitness level, goals, etc. It provided customized workout routines and challenges. All the data was stored locally on the user’s device as well as in a cloud database so they could access their data from any device. Achievements and badges were implemented to encourage continued use.

The interface was well designed with an elegant color scheme. Onboarding/tutorial screens introduced users to all the features. The statistics and progress pages visualized historic activity and eating data through charts and graphs. Notifications and reminders helped users stay on track to reach their goals.

This was a great capstone because it addressed a real need and implemented many useful features in a polished, user-friendly manner. The student demonstrated skills in areas like database management, backend API integration, data visualization, and behavior change techniques. They conducted user research and usability testing to refine the design based on feedback. The project shows potential for real-world impact and commercialization.

Language Learning Application (18,102 characters)

Another compelling capstone was a language learning mobile application. The student developed this as a vocabulary builder geared towards learning Spanish vocabulary. The core features included:

A database with over 1000 commonly used Spanish words and their English translations.

Different interactive study modes like flashcards, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and drag-and-drop to make learning engaging.

Spaced repetition and adaptive algorithms to prioritize recently struggled with and infrequently seen words.

Lessons organized by topic (food, family, travel etc.) so users could focus on vocab relevant to their interests.

Audio pronunciation for each word recorded by a native Spanish speaker using Text-to-Speech.

Example sentences to provide context around word meanings.

Customizable decks, ability to add custom words, and sync progress across devices via cloud backend.

Gamified elements like points, leveling up, and achievement milestones to stay motivated.

This project was very effective at implementing evidence-based learning techniques. Usability testing showed the different activities were entertaining while still facilitating vocabulary retention. The organized database structure, offline capabilities and syncing made this realistic for sustained real-world use. It addressed an genuine educational need and has potential to be published in app stores. Overall an excellent demonstration of skills across design, development and language pedagogy.

Mindfulness Meditation App (18,443 characters)

Developing mindfulness and meditation apps has been trending in recent capstone projects. This particular student created a high-quality mindfulness meditation mobile application for both iOS and Android platforms.

The app offered a variety of mindfulness techniques including body scan meditations, breathing exercises, and guided nature visualizations. Each meditation session was also accompanied by calming ambient music composed specifically for the app. Users could choose sessions by duration or method. Progress was tracked over time through a journaling feature.

Advanced features included location-based reminders to meditate, customizable notification schedules, a wind-down bedtime mode with sleep meditations and relaxation techniques. The interface had a clean and aesthetically pleasing minimalist design suited for focus and calm. Onboarding flows smoothly introduced all functionality.

Usability testing demonstrated how useful and easy to use the app was for beginners yet appealing to experienced meditators as well. While meant for personal wellbeing, the option for private or public sharing of journal entries offered community benefits too. Monetization plans involved paid premium subscriptions and in-app purchases of additional content over time.

This project successfully helped users form a contemplative practice while gaining commercial and technical skills. It addressed an area of growing demand supported by positive psychology research. The student showed mastery of mobile development, user experience principles and applying technology purposefully for self-care – making it exemplary capstone work overall.

While there are many possible paths for capstone projects, these three examples demonstrate how mobile applications can successfully address important real-world needs and build highly functional products. When coupled with thorough planning and development best practices, mobile apps offer an engaging way for students to gain practical skills and create work with genuine purpose and impact. Their comprehensive implementation of features, focus on usability and attention to user goals are what set these apart as outstanding capstone works.