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Short formal essays are a staple genre found in many magazines. These essays aim to inform readers on a topic in an academic yet accessible manner. Successful short formal essays maintain a crisp tone, remain concise yet deeply informative, and leave the reader with new insights to ponder.

An important aspect of any essay is choosing an appropriate topic. The topic should be narrowly focused yet broadly interesting. It should not attempt to cover too wide a range but rather delve into one specific element of a larger issue or subject. Complex topics are best simplified and one sub-element or case study examined in-depth rather than attempting a survey. For a magazine essay, the topic also needs to have a level of contemporary relevance. Explaining the minutiae of an historical event without linking to current affairs is less engaging for busy readers.

In bringing their chosen topic to life, authors of short formal essays employ a number of techniques. Vivid descriptive passages that utilize sensory details are one method to immerse readers and maintain engagement with a dense topic. Illustrative examples, case studies, profiles of individuals, and statistical data can flesh out explanations and arguments. Quotes from experts also lend credibility while keeping the writing lively. Visual elements like charts, photographs and diagrams break up walls of text and aid comprehension of complex concepts.

As essays are by nature concise, structure and organization are crucial. A clear introduction that defines the topic’s importance and outlines the essay’s scope and argument is vital groundwork. Adhering to a steady logical flow between paragraphs enables readers to follow ideas sequentially. Transitional sentences at the start of new sections reinforce connections to previous points. Summarizing conclusions help cement takeaways and bring an air of finality.

Technical writing skills are necessary in formal essay formats. Using precise vocabulary appropriate to the level of readership and avoiding conversational or colloquial language maintains an academic edge. Terms should be defined for clarity. Careful sentence construction ensures fluidity between ideas. Active rather than passive verb constructions enhance rhythm and energy on the page when treated judiciously. Objective rather than emotional language signals credibility and serious intent to readers.

While formality of tone and depth of research are priorities, compelling writing engages emotions as well as intellect. A touch of wit or irony, where fitting, prevents dryness. Carefully placed rhetorical questions can draw readers in. Paragraphs should be of manageable length to retain focus rather than overwhelm. Text heavy with dense paragraphs risks losing readers already pressed for time in their busy lives. White space and brevity are virtues for any published writing.

Proper sourcing is essential for establishing credibility and allows readers to further explore topics of interest. In-text citations identify creditable ideas and statistics, while end citations provide paths to deeper investigation. Editorial review polishes work and provides guidance to strengthen arguments, correct errors, improve flow and ensure factual accuracy before publication. Adherence to a style guide maintains consistency in formatting citations and bibliographies.

Short formal essays in magazines expertly fulfill an informative role. By dissecting complex subjects succinctly yet accessibly, they expand general readers’ understandings and spark further thought. Adherence to principles of structure, technical writing skills, judicious use of illustrative content and proper sourcing establishes authority and trustworthiness for busy readers. The genre requires balancing rigors of research with humanity of storytelling to engage modern media consumers.


The diverse regions of Asia and Oceania showcase an array of geographic features, climates, and cultures across a hugely vast area that makes up nearly half the world’s population. From the icy mountains and steppes of Central Asia to the tropical rainforests and beach-lined coasts of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, this region exhibits incredible geographic diversity. In this essay, I will examine key geographic aspects of Asia and Oceania, including physical landscapes, climate patterns, population distributions, and economic activities, showing how geography has strongly influenced the development of civilizations and nations across the area.

Let us begin with the physical geography. Stretching from Western Asia all the way to the Pacific, Asia incorporates a wide range of climates and landscapes. In the north, Siberia experiences bitterly cold and long winters, with permanently frozen underground layers of soil called permafrost. Mountain systems such as the Himalayas and Tian Shan in Central Asia include some of the highest points on earth, with over 50 peaks exceeding 7,000 meters in elevation. Southeast Asia contains a mix of low-lying coastal plains as well as densely forested highlands and mountain interiors. Island nations in the Pacific range from low-lying coral atolls that are rarely more than a few meters above sea level to mountainous volcanic islands such as New Zealand.

The climates of Asia and Oceania broadly follow latitude-based patterns but are influenced by the predominant monsoon systems. Northern Asia has humid continental or subarctic climates with long, cold winters. Central and Western Asia experience dry, warm summers and mild to cold winters in an arid or semi-arid climate regime influenced by subtropical high pressure zones. South and Southeast Asia are dominated by tropical wet and dry climates under the alternation of the Southwest and Northeast Asian monsoon wind systems. Regions within the tropical zone like Indonesia receive abundant rainfall year-round while areas on the edges experience drier seasons. Oceania encompasses climates from tropical rainforest to cool temperate, with warm to hot and humid conditions dominating much of Melanesia and Micronesia.

In Asia, population density varies tremendously depending on climate, terrain, and economic conditions. Densely populated regions include Eastern China, India, and islands of Southeast Asia like Java and Luzon. Central Asia, Siberia, and interior portions of South and Southeast Asia have very low population densities due to their remoteness, high elevations and rugged terrain which pose geographic barriers. Coastal plains and major river valleys have historically seen high population concentrations due to their suitability for agriculture and transport links. In Oceania, most of the population lives in Southeast Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia islands and island groups rather than the sparsely inhabited areas like Papua New Guinea highlands and interior. Australia and New Zealand have populations concentrated in capital cities and coastal areas suitable for urban development and agriculture.

Geographic factors like climate, terrain and natural resources have heavily influenced patterns of economic activity across Asia and Oceania over the past centuries. For example, rice has long been a staple food crop throughout the humid tropics and subtropics of mainland and island Southeast Asia. Wheat and millet are important in the drier northern zones. Tea production is centered in mountainous regions of eastern China, northeast India and northern Vietnam. Petroleum and natural gas extraction now dominate the economies of West Asian nations like Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states. Fishing and fish/shellfish aquaculture are major industries for coastal communities throughout Asia and Oceania, especially in Southeast Asia, Japan and the Pacific Islands. Hydropower generation occurs in the Himalayan region utilizing glacier-fed rivers. Mining industries extract bauxite, tin, nickel, gold and coal from regions like Indonesia, Australia and Papua New Guinea. Tourism thrives in areas blessed with beaches, reefs, rainforests and cultural heritage like Thailand, Bali, Fiji and New Zealand. Manufacturing and electronics assembly are concentrated around major river deltas and port cities facilitated efficient transport links to raw materials and markets such as the Pearl and Yangtze river valleys in China. Geography has clearly influenced these patterns of economic specialization across countries and subregions.

The massive regions of Asia and Oceania demonstrate tremendous geographic diversity in landscapes, climates and natural environments that have profoundly shaped patterns of human settlement, culture and economic activity. Development trajectories have been heavily influenced by access to arable land and water resources, terrain suitability for agriculture or trade routes, climatic conditions, and endowments of natural resources. This interplay between human societies and their physical environment will doubtless continue to affect Asia-Oceania’s further economic evolution and challenges from issues like rising seas and changing rainfall patterns brought on by anthropogenic climate change. Geography remains a prime determinant of development opportunities and constraints across one of the most economically and culturally rich parts of our world.


Upon review of Spencer’s three essay revisions and considering the descriptors of a formal tone, Revision 2 demonstrates the most effective use of a formal writing style. A formal tone is characterized as serious, objective, and impartial. It conveys information to an audience in a serious manner without being overly casual or using conversational elements.

Revision 1 has a more informal tone that does not align well with the expectations of a school assignment. While the content is relevant and well developed, the presentation incorporates conversational elements that undermine the seriousness of tone needed for a formal paper. Use of first-person pronouns like “I” and contractions like “don’t” convey a more casual attitude. Word choice also has informal aspects, such as referring to historical figures by first name only which lacks proper scholarly respect. The presentation comes across as a conversational piece rather than a serious objective analysis.

Revisions 2 and 3 adopt a more serious scholarly approach through objective third-person narrative and formal language free of contractions and conversational elements. Of these two revisions, Revision 2 best exemplifies an impartial formal tone through balanced analysis of the topic. While Revision 3 maintains a serious tone, it shows subjective leanings through disproportionate emphasis placed on one side of the issue over the other. Maintaining an impartial stance is an important trait of a formal academic tone.

Revision 2 aligns with the key defining traits of a formal style through its presentation. The seriousness of tone comes across through the selection of formal academic vocabulary and sentence structure. Using words like “moreover”, “whereas”, and “examination” in place of more casual alternatives establishes a scholarly rigor. Objective third-person point of view also contributes to a serious impression as opposed to first-person informal language.

Detailing both sides of the argument equally without apparent bias demonstrates impartiality, another hallmark of formal academic writing. Revision 2 considers multiple perspectives in a balanced manner to provide a well-rounded analysis. In contrast, Revision 3 emphasizes one position over another, undermining its impartiality. An objective analysis welcomes opposing views rather than promoting a particular stance.

Formal writing also refrains from conversational elements that could diminish seriousness. Revision 2 adheres to this through proper grammar with no contractions or other informal features. Referring to historical figures with honorific titles like “President” maintains a respectful academic tone. In comparison, Revisions 1 and 3 include occasional contractions and refer to individuals in a more casual manner at times.

Revision 2 exemplifies an effective formal academic tone for this type of school assignment through its serious objective presentation, balanced analysis, formal language choices, and impartial analysis. It conveys the information to the audience in a serious scholarly manner expected of formal writing. While all essay options covered the topic sufficiently, Revision 2 aligns closest to producing a formal impression through its stylistic presentation. For these reasons, Revision 2 best meets the criteria of employing a formal tone from the options provided.


Writing a high-quality argumentative essay takes research, planning, and strong composition skills. The goal of an argumentative essay is to convince the reader that your stance on an issue is the most valid. This type of persuasive writing requires presenting facts to support your perspective while also addressing opposing views in a logical manner.

There are several key steps to follow when writing an argumentative essay. The first is choosing a topic. Pick a subject that you have a genuine interest in and that allows for meaningful arguments on both sides. Research current debates around the issue to find the strongest counterarguments to your position. You’ll need to address these substantive counterpositions effectively in your essay. Some potential topics could include social issues like gun control, abortion, or immigration policy changes. Choosing a topic that is well-defined and has credibility and controversy means there is substantive research readily available on all perspectives.

Next, you’ll want to take a firm stance in favor of or against the issue. Your stance is the central claim or assertion that the entire essay will aim to prove. Once you develop your position, research your stance thoroughly. Look for factual evidence from credible sources that helps formulate arguments to support your perspective. These facts can include statistics, expert opinions, case studies, historical evidence, and more. Compiling facts and quoting experts will strengthen your persuasive claims. Make shorthand notes of the strongest pieces of evidence and quotes you find during your research.

Also research counterarguments to consider perspectives contrary to your stance. Addressing opposing views is necessary to craft a convincing argument. Note potentially challenging counterevidence, facts, or expert opinions as well. Understanding credible arguments on all sides of an issue will help develop thoughtful responses to strengthen your own position and anticipate counterarguments readers may have. Thorough research from reputable sources forms the bedrock of a persuasive argumentative essay.

After research, organize your evidence and arguments. The body of the essay should present the backbone of your claims through well-developed paragraphs focused on separate key points. Begin each body paragraph by clearly stating the main argument or point of that section using a topic sentence at the start. Then dedicate the rest of the paragraph to explaining, proving, and expanding on that main point using factual evidence from research and compelling examples. Interpret statistics, synthesize expert quotations, and analyze case studies or historical events in a way that meaningfully supports the overall stance presented in the topic sentence.

For contrast and balance, address reasonable counterarguments in body paragraphs as well by first stating the opposing view and then convincingly refuting it using your research on counterpositions and evidence. Anticipate the strongest case against your view and craft thoughtful, factual rebuttals. Thoroughly addressing alternative perspectives elevates your essay’s credibility as balanced and substantive. Make sure each body paragraph has a clear, focused point to either prove your stance or weaken a counterstance using evidentiary support.

The introduction should grab readers’ attention while also concisely stating the argumentative issue and your position on it in a 1-2 paragraph overview. Likewise, the conclusion should not introduce new information but rather synthesize the major points made throughout the essay and re-emphasize the significance or implications of adopting your stance. The structure of having an engaging introductory paragraph, well-structured body paragraphs, and concluding remarks ties the paper together cohesively. Use transition words and phrases within and between paragraphs to guide the logical flow and progression of your ideas.

For the style, write in a respectful yet confident tone given this is a persuasively argued paper. Avoid casual language and do not personally attack those with differing views. Use formal academic language and an objective, factual style grounded in reliable evidence even when staking out your clear position. Proper spelling, grammar, punctuation and varied sentence structure are a must for polished writing style. Consider having others proofread your work to find any errors or awkward phrasings to remedy.

Follow standard formatting guidelines for citations and references. In-text citations should credit direct quotes, paraphrases and statistics to the original sources consulted in research. Then provide full reference list entries in alphabetical order matching the in-text citations at the conclusion of the essay. Proper citing allows others to fact-check claims made without concerns of plagiarism. This indicates a ethically conducted, credible argument.

Choosing a relevant topic, taking a clear stance, conducting thorough research, skillfully organizing evidentiary support, addressing counterarguments, crafting an engaging introduction and conclusion, using a formal academic style, and citing properly are all crucial components for writing an high-quality argumentative essay persuading readers of your viewpoint’s validity regarding the debated issue. Crafting a cohesive, fact-based argument with balance and substance is the aim in this type of academic persuasive writing.


Here are some key points about the horrors of science that could be addressed in an essay:

  • Experiments on humans without consent – Discuss examples like the Tuskegee syphilis study where untreated black men were deliberately left with syphilis just to observe the disease progress. Also bring up Nazi medical experiments in concentration camps.
  • Animal testing and cruelty – Note the immense suffering inflicted on animals in labs for the sake of research. Explain how alternative research methods like microdosing and computer modeling are far more ethical.
  • Weapons development – Outline how science has enabled unprecedented means of mass destruction like nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Argue this directly conflicts with saving human lives.
  • Environmental pollution – Cite scientific advances that have damaged the planet through pollution from industries like fossil fuels, plastics, agrochemicals etc. Stress this threatens the survival of humanity.
  • Privacy violations – Touch upon how biometrics, AI and mass surveillance enabled by science pose a grave threat to civil liberties and individual freedom.
  • Power imbalances – Discuss how certain nations and institutions monopolize life-saving health technologies while billions lack access to basic care due to poverty. This creates unnecessary suffering.
  • Transhumanism – Warn about the dystopian implications of enhancing humans with technologies like brain-computer interfaces, genetic engineering and nanotechnology before fully understanding their risks. The consequences of such changes may be irreversible.
  • Playing God – Cautiously argue that attempting to engineer biology beyond our comprehension through synthetic life and modifying human evolution challenges the natural order and could have catastrophic unintended effects.

I have tried keeping my answer concise while hitting the key points requested in less than 2,000 characters+. Please let me know if you need any part expanded further for the essay. I am happy to discuss and provide more perspective in the ROLE.