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Trigger point dry needling is generally considered a safe procedure when performed by a licensed healthcare provider with proper training in the technique. Like any medical procedure, however, there are some potential risks and side effects that patients should be aware of before undergoing dry needling treatment. Some of the more commonly reported risks and side effects associated with trigger point dry needling include the following:

Increased Pain – While the goal of dry needling is to reduce pain by deactivating trigger points, it is common for patients to feel a temporary increase in pain or soreness at the needling site during or immediately following a treatment session. This is a normal physiological response as the muscles relax and is not generally a cause for concern. The pain or soreness should subside over the next 24-48 hours as the muscles heal and relaxed further. In rare cases, some patients have reported pain persisting for longer than 2-3 days.

Bruising – It is not uncommon for patients to experience minor bruising at the needling site as dry needling involves the insertion of very thin filiform needles into tight muscle bands. Bruising results from small capillaries rupturing under the skin. Bruises are usually minor and resolve within a few days without complications. On rare occasions, patients with bleeding disorders or those taking blood-thinning medications have experienced more extensive bruising.

Bleeding – Minor bleeding can sometimes occur at the needling site if a small blood vessel is accidentally punctured. Any bleeding is usually minor and stops quickly on its own. The healthcare provider should apply pressure to stop any bleeding. Significant or prolonged bleeding requiring medical attention is very rare. As with bruising, those with bleeding disorders or on blood thinners are at higher risk.

Fainting – A small percentage of patients may feel faint, dizzy or lightheaded during or shortly after a dry needling treatment session. This usually results from sensation of needle insertion or change in body position rather than any medical issue. Ensure you are well hydrated before treatment and listen to your practitioner’s instructions to avoid moves that cause drops in blood pressure like suddenly standing up.

Nerve Injury – Very rarely, there is a small risk of accidentally puncturing or injuring nerves near the needling site. Nerves are usually well protected by muscles and fascia making direct trauma uncommon when treatment is performed properly. Minor nerve injuries like temporary numbness, tingling or pain usually resolve within days. Long-term or permanent nerve damage is exceptionally rare but possible if protocols are not followed.

Infection – Bacteria normally present on the skin can potentially cause infection if transferred too deeply by acupuncture needles. Infection after dry needling is considered very rare due to the use of only solid filiform needles which do not remain in the body long-term. Any post-treatment infection would normally manifest as local inflammation around a needling site and respond readily to oral antibiotics. More serious infections requiring hospitalization have not been reported.

Organ Puncture – While exceedingly unlikely when treatment is performed properly in appropriate muscle locations, there is a theoretical risk of inadvertently puncturing an underlying organ like the lungs (pneumothorax) or liver if protocols are breached. This requires advancement of the needle well beyond safe depths. No cases of organ puncture from properly administered trigger point dry needling have been documented.

Allergic Reaction – Allergies to needle metals like stainless steel are considered very rare. Mild allergic skin reactions like redness, itching or rash could potentially occur but would not usually cause health issues. Anyone knowing of metal allergies should notify their practitioner before treatment. Serious systemic allergic reactions or anaphylaxis have not been associated with dry needling.

As with all medical procedures, proper dry needling technique, practitioner competence, and adherence to established safety protocols are key to minimizing risks. Patients should feel comfortable discussing any medical history or concerns with their healthcare provider prior to treatment. Potential side effects are usually mild and short-lived when trigger point dry needling is administered appropriately. As a generally low-risk procedure, dry needling provides effective pain relief for many musculoskeletal issues when incorporated as part of a broader treatment plan including exercise, manual therapy, and lifestyle modification.

While trigger point dry needling is considered very safe when performed correctly by a licensed practitioner, patients should be aware of potential risks like possible increased pain, minor bruising or bleeding at needling sites, fainting, temporary nerve reactions, or very rare infection or organ puncture. Serious health issues are exceedingly uncommon and mild side effects are usually self-limiting if appropriate protocols are followed. The procedure provides significant musculoskeletal pain relief for many individuals when administered skillfully as part of comprehensive clinical care.


While social media use among youth has also been associated with some negative impacts such as increased risks of cyberbullying, social comparison and reducedsleep, researchers have also found many potential benefits of social media use for youth:

Social media allows youth to connect with peers and maintain existing friendships: One of the biggest benefits of social media is that it makes it easy for youth to stay connected with their friends even when they are physically separated. Various studies have found that social media helps strengthen both close friendships and larger online social networks of youth. It allows them to share updates about their daily lives, inside jokes, thoughts and feelings with their peer group. This ongoing social connectedness through social platforms is positively correlated with youth’s well-being and life satisfaction scores.

Social media expands social networks of youth: Beyond existing friends, social media platforms also give youth an opportunity to interact with a much larger network of peers who share their interests or are part of the same community through groups, pages and followings. This expanded social network exposes youth to a variety of perspectives and experiences which can help them learn social skills while connecting with like-minded individuals. For example, research shows that youth who are part of fandoms and interest-based communities on social media report higher self-esteem.

Social media boosts civic and political engagement of youth: Various studies have found positive links between social media use and youth’s civic and political engagement. For instance, researchers have found that youth who actively discuss social and political issues on social media are more likely to participate in online and offline political activities such as signing petitions, contacting representatives and even participating in protests or marches in the future. Social platforms give youth a chance to easily stay informed about issues in their community and voice support for causes they care about.

Social media supports identity exploration and development: Adolescence is a period when youth deeply explore and solidify their identities. Researchers have found that social media platforms allow youth to experiment with identities, explore their interests and reflect on ‘who they are’ through profiles, bios, pictures, opinions shared, groups joined and pages followed. This identity work benefits their psychosocial development. One study found that youth who engaged more in identity expression on social media had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction scores on average. Expression of authentic identities is important for youth well-being.

Social media enhances creativity of youth: Besides identity exploration, various researchers argue that active participation on social platforms significantly boosts youth’s creativity. For instance, youth produce user-generated content such as memes, digital artwork, videos, blogs, podcasts etc. that require creativity. Learning new digital skills to produce such content is positively associated with creative skills development and growth mindset in youth. Researchers also find that youth who share their creative works on social media report confidence in their abilities and interests in creative pursuits. Creativity fosters several emotional and intellectual benefits in youth.

Social media makes learning more engaging and collaborative: Education experts also argue that when used properly under guidance, social media enhances engagement, collaboration and motivation in formal learning among youth. For instance, classroom pages and groups on Facebook or projects involving media production encourage co-creation and peer learning. Hashtag challenges are positively linked to improved topic understanding. Online discussions allow shy students to participate more. Such collaborative learning experienced on social media carry over to classrooms and support youth development of 21st century skills such as critical thinking, communication and digital literacy.

Though social media use also comes with risks that should not be understated, research evidence increasingly highlights the significant benefits it provides youth in terms of social connectedness, identity exploration, information access, civic participation, creativity and collaborative learning when used judiciously under guidance. These positive effects aid crucial areas of youth development like well-being, self-esteem, communication abilities and future success. Sensible social media habits from a young age can set youth on a path of reaping maximum benefits while minimizing risks from such platforms.


The influenza vaccine is generally safe and effective for most children. Like with any vaccine or medication, there is a possibility for side effects to occur in some children who receive the flu shot. Typically, these side effects are mild and go away on their own within a few days. Some of the most common side effects seen in children after receiving the influenza vaccine include:

Soreness, redness or swelling at the injection site: This is one of the most frequently reported side effects. The area where the shot was given may be mildly painful, tender, red or swollen. This usually disappears within a couple days. While uncommon, a small bruise may also develop at the injection site.

Fever: A low grade fever of up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit is not uncommon after getting the flu shot, occurring in about 1 out of every 10 children. The fever usually comes on suddenly about 6-12 hours after vaccination and typically lasts 1-2 days. It is generally not serious and can be treated with over-the-counter fever reducers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen if needed for comfort.

Body aches: Some children may experience mild body aches or muscle soreness after the vaccination that goes away on its own after a day or two. This is especially common if the child has a fever as well.

Fatigue: Feeling tired and lacking energy for a day is a common side effect in children post-vaccination. This is usually not severe and resolves fully after resting.

Headache: A minor, dull headache may trouble some children in the hours or day after getting the flu shot. It is typically mild and goes away with standard treatment like acetaminophen.

Stomach upset: On rare occasions, nausea or diarrhea may occur in children following influenza immunization. This is usually transient, lasting less than a day.

While rare, more severe side effects in children have been reported after influenza vaccination. These include:

Allergic reaction: True allergic reactions to the flu shot are very uncommon, occurring in approximately 1 in 1 million doses. Symptoms of a potential allergic reaction may include hives, wheezing or difficulty breathing that starts several minutes to a few hours after getting vaccinated. This would constitute a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment and monitoring.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS): This is a rare neurological disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the nerves, causing muscle weakness or even paralysis. It has been reported to be associated with influenza vaccines in about 1 in 1 million vaccinated people. Recovery often takes several months.

Severe fevers: On rare occasions, children have experienced high fevers of 103 degrees Fahrenheit or higher in the days following immunization. This type of fever requires medical evaluation to check for any complications. Most fevers subside with treatment and do not lead to further issues however.

As a parent or caregiver, it’s important to monitor your child for any concerning or unusual symptoms after vaccination and report them promptly to your pediatrician. The vast majority of side effects from the flu shot are mild, temporary, and not cause for alarm. Most experts agree that influenza vaccines provide important protection against illness for children and the benefits vastly outweigh potential risks in almost all cases. Proper screening for allergies or other precautions may be taken by healthcare providers when vaccinating children at higher risk for adverse events. With close post-vaccination surveillance, it is generally safe for the majority of children to receive an annual flu shot.

As the immune response can vary in each individual child, side effects may occur at different levels of severity even for the same vaccine. Factors such as overall health status, previous vaccination history and age can influence potential side effect risk as well. While uncommon, some children may experience no side effects whatsoever after flu immunization. Healthcare providers should thoroughly review the risks and benefits of vaccination prior to administration and discuss what to expect with parents. With appropriate post-vaccination care and monitoring, most discomfort is mild, resolves swiftly, and leaves children fully protected from seasonal influenza for the duration of the immunity period. The influenza vaccine provides substantial protection and low risk to children when utilized as recommended.


A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a systematic process for evaluating potential failure modes within a system or design and assessing the relative impact of those failures. By conducting a thorough FMEA, engineers can gain valuable insights into ways the system may fail and assess how to minimize risk and the effects of any potential failures that do occur. Some key findings that could emerge from a comprehensive FMEA may include:

The FMEA would carefully examine each component, subsystem and interface within the overall system or design. Engineers would evaluate potential ways that each part could fail to perform its intended function, considering factors such as material defects, wear and tear, excessive stresses, improper assembly, incorrect operational parameters, etc. Through this process, certain components may be identified as having higher failure potential due to their complexity, number of failure modes, operating stresses or other risk factors. For example, some parts that interface with users or are exposed to harsh environmental conditions could emerge as particular risk areas based on potential failure modes.

Upon determining all potential failure modes, the team would then assess the impact or severity of each failure on system performance, safety and other critical attributes. Some failure modes, even if relatively unlikely, may carry catastrophic or critical consequences like injury, system damage or inability to complete a primary function. Other failures may only cause minor quality issues or inconveniences. This severity analysis helps identify where design or process changes could help minimize overall risk. Certain component failures or failure combinations ranked with high severity may warrant immediate design focus or additional controls.

An important consideration would be the likelihood or probability of each specific failure mode occurring. Factors like history of similar parts, design maturity, manufacturing processes and component stresses are evaluated. Failures seen as very likely due to high risks require special attention versus others seen as only remotely possible. Combining severity and occurrence evaluations into an overall risk priority number, the FMEA can objectively pinpoint the highest priority issues to address proactively through design or process improvements.

Patterns may emerge implicating certain suppliers, manufacturing steps, environmental conditions or other root causes as contributing factors in multiple failure modes. For example, if many failures can be traced to variations in a critical material property, material certification and testing processes may need review. Such systematic insights help prioritize the most valuable corrective and preventive actions to take.

Recommended actions are formulated to reduce occurrence and/or minimize impact of the highest risk failures. These may include design changes like adding features to reinforce weaknesses, improve inspection points, or adding redundancies. Process recommendations could involve tightening controls, adding process validation checks, supplying staff training and so on. An effective FMEA drives continuous improvement by prioritizing actions supported by objective analysis.

Once improvements are made, the FMEA should be recalculated or revisited periodically over the system’s life cycle to verify effectiveness and consider additional learning from field data. New potential failure modes may emerge as designs or usage profiles evolve too. Periodic review ensures the analysis stays aligned with current conditions.

A robust FMEA process involves cross-functional perspectives in the analysis and uses its findings to help develop comprehensive reliability test plans as well as maintenance and inspection protocols. The end goal is achieving an optimal balance of high reliability, safety and cost-effectiveness throughout the system’s lifecycle. When consistently applied and maintained, FMEA can significantly reduce development and operational risks.

A thorough failure modes and effects analysis provides a rigorous, evidence-based process for identifying and prioritizing reliability and safety concerns within a system or design. Its key findings light the path for targeted improvements to minimize overall risks and their impacts on performance, schedule and budgets. Used effectively, FMEA drives powerful gains that resonate throughout the development, production and field support phases of any product or operation.