Tag Archives: analysis


Deep learning techniques such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have shown strong performance for sentiment analysis of text data. Deep learning models are capable of automatically learning representations of text needed for sentiment classification from large amounts of unlabeled training data through architectures inspired by the human brain.

CNNs have proven effective for sentiment analysis because their sliding window approach allows them to identify sentiment-bearing n-grams in text. CNNs apply consecutive layers of convolutions and pooling operations over word embeddings or character n-grams to extract key features. The final fully connected layers then use these features for sentiment classification. A CNN can learn effective n-gram features in an end-to-end fashion without needing feature engineering.

RNNs, particularly long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) networks, are well-suited for sentiment analysis due to their ability to model contextual information and long distance relationships in sequential data like sentences and documents. RNNs read the input text sequentially one token at a time and maintain an internal state to capture dependencies between tokens. This makes them effective at detecting sentiment that arises from longer-range contextual cues. Bidirectional RNNs that process the text in both the forward and backward directions have further improved results.

CNN-RNN hybrid models that combine the strengths of CNNs and RNNs have become very popular for sentiment analysis. In these models, CNNs are applied first to learn n-gram features from the input embeddings or character sequences. RNN layers are then utilized on top of the CNN layers to identify sentiment based on sequential relationships between the extracted n-gram features. Such models have achieved state-of-the-art results on many sentiment analysis benchmarks.

Rule-based techniques such as dictionary-based approaches are also used for sentiment analysis. Dictionary-based techniques identify sentiment words, phrases and expressions in the text by comparing them against predefined sentiment dictionaries or lexicons. Scoring is then performed based on the sentiment orientation and strength of the identified terms. While not as accurate as machine learning methods due to their dependence on the completeness of dictionaries, rule-based techniques still see use for simplicity and interpretability. They can also supplement ML models.

Aspect-based sentiment analysis techniques aim to determine sentiment at a more granular level – towards specific aspects, features or attributes of an entity or topic rather than the overall sentiment. They first identify these aspects from text, map sentiment-bearing expressions to identified aspects, and determine polarity and strength of sentiment for each aspect. Techniques such as rule-based methods, topic modeling, and supervised ML algorithms like SVMs or deep learning have been applied for aspect extraction and sentiment classification.

Unsupervised machine learning techniques can also be utilized to some extent for sentiment analysis when labeled training data is limited. In these techniques, machine learning models are trained without supervision by only utilizing unlabeled sentiment data. Examples include clustering algorithms like k-means clustering to group messages into positive and negative clusters based on word distributions and frequencies. Dimensionality reduction techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) can also be applied as a preprocessing step to project text into lower dimensional spaces better suited for unsupervised learning.

In addition to the above modeling techniques, many advanced natural language processing and deep learning principles have been leveraged to further improve sentiment analysis results. Some examples include:

Word embeddings: Representing words as dense, low-dimensional and real-valued vectors which preserve semantic and syntactic relationships. Popular techniques include Word2vec, GloVe and FastText.

Attention mechanisms: Helping models focus on sentiment-bearing parts of the text by weighting token representations based on relevance to the classification task.

Transfer learning: Using large pretrained language models like BERT, XLNet, RoBERTa that have been trained on massive unlabeled corpora to extract universal features and initialize weights for downstream sentiment analysis tasks.

Data augmentation: Creating additional synthetic training samples through simple techniques like synonym replacement to improve robustness of models.

Multi-task learning: Jointly training models on related NLP tasks like topic modeling, relation extraction, aspect extraction to leverage shared representations and improve sentiment analysis performance.

Ensemble methods: Combining predictions from multiple models like SVM, CNN, RNN through averaging or weighted voting to yield more robust and accurate sentiment predictions than individual models.

While techniques like naïve Bayes and support vector machines formed the basis, latest deep learning and NLP advancements have significantly improved sentiment analysis. Hybrid models leveraging strengths of different techniques tend to work best in practice for analyzing customer feedback at scale in terms of both accuracy and interpretability of results.


The integrated analysis of multiple datasets from different disciplines provided several practical implications and insights. One of the key findings was that there are complex relationships between different social, economic, health and environmental factors that influence societal outcomes. Silos of data from individual domains need to be broken down to get a holistic understanding of issues.

Some of the specific practical implications that emerged include:

Linkages between economic conditions and public health outcomes: The analysis found strong correlations between a region’s economic stability, income levels, employment rates and various health metrics like life expectancy, incidence of chronic diseases, mental health issues etc. This suggests that improving local job opportunities and incomes could have downstream impacts in reducing healthcare burdens and improving overall well-being of communities. Targeted economic interventions may prove more effective than just healthcare solutions alone.

Role of transportation infrastructure on urban development patterns: Integrating transportation network data with real estate, demographic and land usage records showed how transportation projects like new highway corridors, subway lines or bus routes influenced migration and settlement patterns over long periods of time. This historical context can help urban planners make more informed decisions about future infrastructure spending and development zoning to manage growth in desirable ways.

Impact of energy costs on manufacturing sector competitiveness: Merging energy market data with industrial productivity statistics revealed that fluctuations in electricity and natural gas prices from year to year influenced plant location decisions by energy-intensive industries. Regions with relatively stable and low long term energy costs were better able to attract and retain such industries. This highlights the need for a balanced, market-oriented and environment-friendly energy policy to support regional industrial economies.

Links between education and long term economic mobility: Cross-comparing education system performance metrics like high school graduation rates, standardized test scores, college attendance numbers etc with income demographics and multi-generational poverty levels showed that communities which invest more resources in K-12 education tend to have populaces with higher lifetime earning potentials and social mobility. Strategic education reforms and spending can help break inter-generational cycles of disadvantage.

Association between neighborhood characteristics and crime rates: Integrating law enforcement incident reports with Census sociological profiles and area characteristics such as affordable housing availability, average household incomes, recreational spaces, transportation options etc pointed to specific environmental factors that influence criminal behaviors at the local level. Targeted interventions to address root sociological determinants may prove more effective for crime prevention than just reactive policing alone.

Impact of climate change on municipal infrastructure resilience: Leveraging climate projection data with municipal asset inventories, maintenance records and past disaster response expenditures provided a quantitative view of each city’s exposure to risks like extreme weather events, rising sea levels, temperature variations etc based on their unique infrastructure profiles. This risk assessment can guide long term adaptation investments to bolster critical services during inevitable future natural disasters and disturbances from climate change.

Non-emergency medical transportation barriers: Combining demographics, social services usage statistics, public transit schedules and accessibility ratings with medical claims data revealed gaps in convenient transportation options that prevent some patients from keeping important specialist visits, treatments or filling prescriptions, especially in rural areas with ageing populations or among low income groups. Addressing these mobility barriers through improved coordination between healthcare and transit agencies can help improve clinical outcomes.

Opportunities for public private partnerships: The integrated view of social, infrastructure and economic trends pointed to specific cooperative initiatives between government, educational institutions and businesses where each sector’s strengths can complement each other. For example, partnerships to align workforce training programs with high growth industries, or efforts between city governments and utilities to test smart energy technologies. Such collaborations are win-win and can accelerate progress.

Analyzing linked datasets paints a much richer picture of the complex interdependencies between various determinants that shape life outcomes in a region over time. The scale and scope of integrated data insights can inform more holistic, long term and result-oriented public policymaking with built-in feedback loops for continuous improvement. While data integration challenges remain, the opportunities clearly outweigh theoretical concerns, especially for addressing complex adaptive societal issues.


One of the most obvious correlations seen between different genres of music is the progression of styles and fusions over time. Many newer genres are influenced by previously established styles and represent fusions or offshoots of older genres. For example, rock music has its origins in blues music from the early 20th century. Rock incorporated elements of blues into a new, amplified style with electric guitars that became popular in the 1950s and 1960s. Subgenres of rock like heavy metal, punk rock, new wave, and alternative rock emerged in later decades by blending rock with other influences.

Hip hop music has roots in disco, funk, and soul music from the 1970s. Emerging out of the Bronx in New York, early hip hop incorporated rhythmic spoken word (“rapping”) over breakbeats and funk samples. As the genre evolved, it absorbed influences from dance music, electronic music, R&B, pop, and global styles. Trap music, which became hugely popular in the 2010s, fused hip hop with Southern bass music styles like crunk and Miami bass. Reggaeton, a Spanish-language dance genre popular in Latin America, also emerged from hip hop, reggae, and Latin styles in the 1990s.

Electronic dance music descended from genres like disco, Italo disco, Euro disco, and house music that incorporated electronic production elements. House arose in Chicago in the 1980s, merging elements of disco, funk, and electronic music. Subgenres of house like acid house, garage, jump up, hardstyle, and dubstep incorporated influences from rock, pop, jungle/drum & bass, and global styles. Trance music’s melodic structure shows inspiration from new-age and ambient music genres. Bass music like dubstep brought polyrhythmic elements from genres like hip hop, garage, grime, and Jamaican dub/reggae forward in the mix.

Closely related styles often emerge from the same musical communities and regional scenes. For example, gothic rock, post-punk, and darkwave music styles arose simultaneously from overlapping scenes in Britain in the late 1970s/early 1980s that incorporated elements of punk, glam rock, and art rock with macabre lyrical and aesthetic themes. Folk punk emerged more recently by merging elements of folk, punk rock, and bluegrass in DIY communities. Lo-fi hip hop incorporated indie/bedroom production aesthetics into hip hop music.

Cross-genre correlations can also be seen in instrumentation, production techniques, and song structure. For example, country music has seen notable influence from blues, bluegrass, folk, Western swing, and rock and often incorporates electric guitars in addition to more traditional country instruments. Pop music frequently absorbs elements of other commercial styles like rock, dance, hip hop, R&B, and others to maximize mass appeal. Many popular song structures are based on traditional verse-chorus forms featured widely across genres initially defined as “pop music.” Electronic music often focuses on repetition and loops due to technological limitations of earlier gear and DJ/producer techniques.

Lyrical themes also provide some points of correlation between genres. Protest songs emerged across genres like folk, rock, punk, and others with messages of political or social change. Spiritual/religious themes show up widely in genres from gospel and Christian rock to worship secular songs. Coming-of-age and romantic themes recurs frequently as well, relating to universal human experiences. Drug culture and party/sex-focused lyrics appear regularly in genres like rock, punk, electronic, hip hop and beyond that celebrate excess or push boundaries. Storytelling traditions connect genres like folk, blues, rap, and flamenco that utilize lyrical narrative as a core component.

While many correlations exist due to influence and fusion between styles over time, genres remain broadly defined by core techniques, regional scenes, and social functions that differentiate them as well. For example, jazz prioritizes improvisation, complex instrumentation, and swinging polyrhythms not featured as prominently elsewhere. Classical music focuses on composed, notated art forms like symphonies, operas, and concert music. World music genres reflect deeply fusion folk traditions of various regions with culturally specific styles of instrumentation, vocal technique, dance, spirituality and storytelling endemic to a place. Ambient, new age, and meditative genres cultivate peaceful, hypnotic vibes through electronic soundscapes versus lyrics or driving rhythms prominent in other styles.

So While music genres certainly cross-pollinate due to the interconnected global music community, they maintain unique identifiers, histories, techniques and functions that distinguish specific styles from each other as well. Genres correlate where cultural transmission and influence have occurred, whether through timeline progressions, regional intersections, or social trend diffusion. But the diversity of human musical expression also leaves ample room for differentiation according to culture, place, and unique artistic vision. Understanding connections and distinctions between genres provides valuable insight into the social and artistic developments that have continuously shaped our musical landscape.


Analytical thinking and critical thinking are often used interchangeably, but they are different higher-order thinking skills. While related, each style of thinking has its own distinct approach and produces different types of insights and outcomes. Understanding the distinction is important, as applying the wrong type of thinking could lead to flawed or incomplete analyses, ideas, decisions, etc.

Analytical thinking primarily involves taking something apart methodically and systematically to examine its component pieces or parts. The goal is to understand how the parts relate to and contribute to the whole and to one another. An analytical thinker focuses on breaking down the individual elements or structure of something to gain a better understanding of its construction and operation. Analytical thinking is objective, logical, and oriented towards problem-solving. It relies on facts, evidence, and data to draw conclusions.

An analytical thinker may ask questions like:

  • What are the key elements or components that make up this topic/idea/problem?
  • How do the individual parts relate to and interact with each other?
  • What is the internal structure or organization that ties all the pieces together?
  • How does changing one part impact or influence the other parts/the whole?
  • What patterns or relationships exist among the various elements?
  • What models or frameworks can I use to explain how it works?

Analytical thinking is useful for understanding complex topics/issues, diagnosing problems, evaluating alternatives, comparing options, reverse engineering systems, rationally weighing facts, and making objective decisions. It is evidence-based, seeks explanations, and aims to arrive at well-supported conclusions.

On the other hand, critical thinking involves evaluating or analyzing information carefully and logically, especially before making a judgment. Whereas analytical thinking primarily focuses on taking something apart, critical thinking focuses on examination and evaluation. A critical thinker questions assumptions or viewpoints and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of an argument or concept.

A critical thinker may ask questions like:

  • What viewpoints, assumptions, or beliefs underlie this perspective/argument/conclusion?
  • What are the key strengths and limitations of this perspective?
  • How sound is the reasoning and evidence provided? What flaws exist?
  • What alternative viewpoints should also be considered?
  • What implications or consequences does adopting this perspective have?
  • How might cultural, social, or political biases shape this perspective?
  • How would other informed people evaluate this argument or conclusion?

Critical thinking is more interpretive, inquisitive, and reflective. It challenges surface-level conclusions by examining deeper validity, reliability, and soundness issues. The aim is to develop a well-reasoned, independent, and overall objective judgement. While analytical thinking can identify flaws or gaps, critical thinking pushes further to question underlying implications.

Some key differences between analytical and critical thinking include:

Focus – Analytical thinking primarily focuses on taking something apart, while critical thinking focuses on examination and evaluation.

Approach – Analytical thinking is more objective/systematic, while critical thinking is more interpretive/questioning.

Motivation – Analytical thinking aims to understand how something works, while critical thinking aims to assess quality/validity before making a judgment.

Perspective – Analytical thinking examines individual parts/structure, while critical thinking considers multiple perspectives and validity beyond the surface.

Role of assumptions – Analytical thinking accepts the framework/perspectives given, while critical thinking questions underlying assumptions/biases.

Outcome – Analytical thinking arrives at conclusions about how something functions, while critical thinking forms an independent reasoned perspective/judgment.

Relationship to evidence – Analytical thinking relies on facts/data provided, while critical thinking scrutinizes how evidence supports conclusions drawn.

Both analytical and critical thinking are important skills with practical applications to academic study, research, problem-solving, decision-making, and more. Using them together is often ideal, as analytical thinking can expose gaps/issues that then need the deeper examination of critical thinking. Developing proficiency in both can strengthen one’s ability to process complex topics across a wide range of domains. The key distinction is how each approach differs in its focus, motivation, and outcome. Understanding these differences is vital for applying the right type of thinking appropriately and avoiding logical fallacies.

Analytical thinking systematically breaks down a topic into constituent parts to understand structure and function, while critical thinking evaluates perspectives, assumptions, and evidence to form a well-justified viewpoint or judgment. Both skills are essential for dissecting multifaceted topics or problems, though their goals and methods differ in important ways. Mastering both requires ongoing practice, experience applying them across disciplines, and reflecting on how to combine their strengths effectively.


To create a pivot table in Excel, you first need to have your raw dataset organized in an Excel worksheet with headers in the first row identifying each column. The data should have consistent field names that you can use to categorize and group the data. Make sure any fields you want to analyze or filter on are in their own columns.

Once your dataset is organized, select any cell within the dataset. Go to the Insert tab at the top of the Excel window and click PivotTable. This will launch the Create PivotTable window. You can either select a New Worksheet option to place the pivot table on its own sheet or select an Existing Worksheet and select where you want to place the pivot table.

For this example, select New Worksheet and click OK. This will open a new sheet with your pivot table fields pane displayed on the right side. By default, it will add all the fields from your source data range to the Rows, Columns, Values areas at the top.

Now you can customize the pivot table by dragging and dropping fields between areas. For example, if your data was sales transactions and you wanted to analyze total sales by product category and year, you would drag the “Product Category” field to the Rows area and the “Year” field to the Columns area. Then drag the “Sales Amount” field to the Values area.

This will cross tabulate all the product categories as row headings across the column years showing the total sales amount for each category/year combination. The pivot table is dynamically linked to the source data, so any changes to the source will be automatically reflected in the pivot table.

You can rearrange and sort the fields in each area by clicking the dropdowns that appear when you hover over a field. For example, you may want to sort the row categories alphabetically. You can also add fields to multiple areas like Rows and Columns for a more complex analysis.

To filter the data in the pivot table, click anywhere inside the table body. Go to the PivotTable Tools Options tab that appears above and click the Filter drop down box below any field name in the report filter pane. Here you can select specific items to include or exclude from the analysis.

For example, you may want to only include sales from 2018-2020 by category to analyze recent trends. Pivoting and filtering allows you to quickly analyze your data from different perspectives without having to rewrite formulas or create additional tables.

You can also customize the pivot table’s layout, style, subtotals, and field settings using additional options on the Design and Layout tabs of the PivotTable Tools ribbon. Common additional features include sorting data in the table, conditional formatting, calculated fields/items, grouping dates, and pivot charts.

All of these actions allow you to extract more meaningful insights from your raw data in an interactive way. Once your pivot table is formatted how you want, you can refresh it by going to the Analyze tab and clicking Refresh anytime the source data is updated. Pivot tables are a very powerful tool for simplifying data analysis and discovery in Excel.

Some additional tips for effective pivot tables include:

Give the pivot table source data its own dedicated worksheet tab for easy reference later on.

Use clear, consistent field names that indicate what type of data each column contains.

Consider additional calculated fields for metrics like averages, percentages, and trends over time.

Filter to only show the most meaningful or relevant parts of the analysis at a time for better focus.

Add descriptive Report Filters to let users dynamically choose subsets of data interactively.

Combine multiple pivot tables on a dashboard worksheettab to compare analyses side by side.

Link pivot charts to visualizetrends and relationships not obvious from the table alone.

Save pivot table reports as their own snapshot files to share findings with stakeholders.

With well structured source data and thoughtful design of the pivot table layout, filters and fields, you can gain powerful insights from your organization’s information that would be very difficult to uncover otherwise. Pivot tables allow you to dramatically simplify analysis and reporting from your Excel data.