Tag Archives: findings


Studies that have examined the effects of divorce on children provide valuable insights that can inform practices and policies aimed at supporting children of divorce. When parents divorce, it is a difficult transition and adjustment period for children that requires understanding and support from parents, schools, mental health professionals, family courts and policymakers. Applying what we have learned from research can help address children’s needs and mitigate potential negative outcomes.

One of the most important takeaways from research is that ongoing parental involvement and nurturing relationships with both parents are critical for children post-divorce. When feasible, shared parenting arrangements where children spend quality time with each parent should be encouraged and supported as much as possible. This allows children to maintain close bonds with both mothers and fathers during and after the divorce process. Family courts can educate divorcing parents about the benefits of shared parenting and make rulings aimed at facilitating ongoing involvement and contact with both parents absent safety concerns.

Schools also play an important role. Teachers and administrators should be knowledgeable about common issues kids face with divorce such as difficulties concentrating, changes in mood or behavior, and dropping academic performance. They can help normalize these experiences for children by explaining that many feel similarly during family transitions. Schools can also connect families to counseling services and community programs. Support groups at school for children of divorce where they can share experiences in a safe environment can help reduce feelings of isolation. Teachers keeping an extra eye out for signs of struggle in these students and communicating concerns to parents can facilitate early intervention.

Mental health professionals should understand that divorce related counseling is often most effective in a longer term, ongoing model as opposed to brief episodes of treatment. Children experiencing parental separation need opportunities to process complex emotions over time with a supportive adult. Counselors can help children navigate relationships with both parents post-divorce through play therapy, expressive arts or cognitive behavioral approaches geared toward their developmental level. They might assist parents in managing conflict, co-parenting effectively and communicating with kids about the divorce in an age-appropriate manner. Family counseling together with each parent individually can aid the adjustment process.

Community programs bringing together families undergoing divorce are also beneficial. Activities that build relationships and a sense of normalcy among peers with shared experiences provide social support. Programs can educate parents on promoting children’s well-being, such as maintaining routines, speaking positively about one another, and managing transitions carefully. These grassroots efforts complement the work of schools and counseling professionals. Local governments can help fund and organize such community-based family support programs as part of a holistic approach to addressing divorce in their area.

On a policy level, this research offers principles for reforming family courts and associated services. Creating user-friendly family justice systems that minimize trauma should be a priority. Court procedures focused on the best interests of children by maintaining parent-child bonds wherever possible are favored. Early intervention and dispute resolution outside of adversarial court hearings can expedite resolution for families when appropriate. Providing legal aid ensures all parents have meaningful access to justice. Linking families to counseling as part of divorce proceedings encourages children’s healthy adjustment. System-wide reforms applying insights from developmental research stand to improve long-term outcomes for children of divorce within communities.

Numerous settings at the personal, community and policy levels play a role in supporting children as their parents divorce according to the practical implications of social science. With awareness of evidence-based best practices and multi-level coordination, the lives of children navigating this difficult family transition can be enhanced. Adults must work to limit potential harms and promote resilience using the understanding gained from studies of how parental separation affects development.


The literature review discussed several relevant theories pertaining to motivation, morale, job satisfaction and employee retention. Self-Determination Theory posits that there are three innate psychological needs – autonomy, competence and relatedness – that must be satisfied for people to feel motivated and fulfilled. Relatedness Need Theory suggests that developing strong relationships and a sense of belonging is critical for well-being and engagement. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs proposes that fulfilling basic needs like safety and esteem is necessary before motivation can occur. Equity Theory looks at perceptions of fairness in the workplace.

The interviews conducted with employees across different departments and experience levels generally supported and aligned with these theories. In terms of autonomy, many interviewees expressed a desire for more control and input over their roles and how they do their work. Those who had greater flexibility and independence reported higher levels of motivation compared to those in more strictly controlled roles. This supported Self-Determination Theory which emphasizes the importance of autonomy.

In relation to relatedness and connection, interview responses suggested that developing strong bonds with coworkers and managers enhanced morale and satisfaction. Employees who felt isolated or lacked opportunities for collaboration were less engaged. Those who discussed work-related issues and had an encouraging working environment appeared happier. This echoed Relatedness Need Theory about the motivational impact of belongingness.

When asked about competency and growth, interviewees frequently discussed the impacts of training and developmental opportunities. Feeling capable and constantly improving skills were tied to greater motivation. A lack of challenges or chances to expand responsibilities diminished motivation for some. Maslow’s idea that competence must be fulfilled prior to higher-level motivation was supported.

Several interviewees expressed concerns regarding equitable compensation, workload distribution and recognition policies. Perceived unfairness damaged their job outlook even if other factors like autonomy were present. Those who felt respected and that contributions were acknowledged were more positive. This aligned with Equity Theory’s propositions about the role of fairness perceptions in the workplace.

Basic needs like pay, benefits, workload and safety also emerged as factors influencing morale according to many interview responses. Those satisfied with these basic necessities were readier to engage more deeply while deficiencies hindered motivation. This paralleled Maslow’s foundational Hierarchy of Needs model.

Areas where interviews diverged somewhat from expectations involved relationships with managers. While connection to coworkers aided motivation per the literature, some manager interactions did not foster relatedness as much as anticipated. Barriers here included inconsistent communication, lack of appreciation shown and too little trust granted. Positive supervisory bonds paralleled the theories as expected based on comments.

The literature guided expectations of theoretical drivers of motivation in useful ways. With some nuances, findings from staff interviews tended to corroborate the importance of autonomy, relatedness/connection, competence, fairness/equity and fulfillment of basic needs as presented in the reviewed motivation/retention theories of Self-Determination, Relatedness Needs, Maslow and Equity. This provided confidence that the selected literature provided a relevant lens for comprehending factors shaping employee engagement uncovered through discussion. The alignment reinforced utilization of these concepts as a framework for analysis and recommendations going forward.

There was considerable coherence between what the literature predicted would influence workplace motivation and job attitudes according to established theories, and the experiential perspective gleaned from interviewing employees across levels and functions. Most findings resonated well with propositions regarding the impact of autonomy, relatedness, competence, fairness and satiation of basic requirements. This convergence supports having selected literature addressing the right theoretical constructs and confirms its utility as a basis for interpreting and responding to motivation and retention issues raised through the research process.


Executive Summary: The executive summary is one of the most important sections of any capstone report. It should be no more than one page and concisely summarize the main research question/problem, methods used, key findings, and primary recommendations. The executive summary gives busy stakeholders a quick overview of the project outcomes and value. It must be well-written in a clear, concise manner that piques interest in the full report.

Introduction: The introduction provides context and overview for the project. It explains the research question/problem studied, why it is relevant or important, potential impacts of the findings, and an outline of the overall report structure. The introduction frames the scope and sets reader expectations. It is important this section introduces the topic in a compelling manner that motivates reading further.

Literature Review: A well-researched and synthesized literature review demonstrates the student understands the background and theoretical framework around the research topic. It summarizes and critiques relevant studies to highlight what is known, debates, gaps in knowledge, and how the current project adds new insights. The literature review establishes credibility and context for the methods and findings. It is organized thematically to tell a clear narrative.

Methods: The methods section provides a step-by-step description of how the research was designed and conducted to answer the research question. Sufficient detail must be included to allow another researcher to replicate the study. Key elements include the type of methodology (e.g. qualitative, quantitative, mixed), sample selection, data collection tools/techniques, procedure, limitations, and trustworthiness of the research design.
Charts/Tables/Figures: Adding relevant charts, figures, graphs and tables to the report helps simplify complex concepts or data and present them in digestible visual formats. Tables summarize quantitative data findings, while figures/graphs display trends, patterns and relationships at a glance. These visual elements break up blocks of text and enhance reader understanding.

Findings: The findings section presents the key outcomes and discoveries from analyses. It relates the findings back to the purpose of the study by addressing the original research question. Findings are reported in an objective, unbiased manner supported by evidence such as verbatim quotes, observation notes or quantitative data. This section does not include recommendations or interpretation – just presents the facts.

Discussion/Analysis: Here, the student synthesizes how the findings relate to the literature reviewed earlier. They analyze, interpret and explain the significance and meaning of results. Comparisons are drawn between the study findings and theories/concepts in existing literature. Unexpected or contradictory findings are highlighted and possible reasons explored. The discussion moves the reader towards recommendations.

Recommendations: This critical section clearly outlines actionable proposals or suggestions based on the implications and significance of the findings and discussion. Recommendations directly address the original problem/question and are targeted towards stakeholders who can implement the changes. They are feasible, evidence-based ideas centered around improving the situation. For each recommendation, potential challenges or limitations are also addressed.

Conclusion: To wrap up the report, the conclusion restates the research problem, summarizes key findings and draws the major outcomes together. Most importantly, it conveys the value, impact and ‘so what’ of the project by emphasizing how it contributes new knowledge or understandings. The conclusion demonstrates reflexivity on the process and personal growth of the student. It leaves the reader with a sense of closure and importance of the work.

Oral Presentation: In addition to the written report, students should hone their communication skills through an oral presentation of the capstone. Visual aids such as slides help engage the audience and summarize major points. Strong presenters adopt an enthusiastic, confident tone and style, maintain eye contact and involve listeners through questioning. Rehearsal is key to refining the presentation for impact.

A well-structured written report supported by an engaging oral presentation allows capstone students to thoughtfully communicate their research in a clear, logical and compelling manner to key stakeholders. Focusing on the audience needs throughout the process helps relay the value, depth and applications of the project in an impactful way.


Qualitative and quantitative data can provide different but complementary perspectives on research topics. While quantitative data relies on statistical analysis to identify patterns and relationships, qualitative data helps to describe and understand the context, experiences, and meanings behind those patterns. An effective way to integrate these two types of data is to use each method to corroborate, elaborate on, and bring greater depth to the findings from the other method.

In this study, we collected both survey responses (quantitative) and open-ended interview responses (qualitative) to understand students’ perceptions of and experiences with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the quantitative data, we surveyed 200 students about their satisfaction levels with different aspects of online instruction on a 5-point Likert scale. We then conducted statistical analysis to determine which factors had the strongest correlations with overall satisfaction. Our qualitative data involved one-on-one interviews with 20 students to elicit rich, narrative responses about their specific experiences in each online class.

In our findings and analysis section, we began by outlining the key results from our quantitative survey data. Our statistical analysis revealed that interaction with instructors, access to technical support when needed, and class engagement activities had the highest correlations with students’ reported satisfaction levels. We presented these results in tables and charts that summarized the response rates and significant relationships identified through our statistical tests.

Having established these overall patterns in satisfaction factors from the survey data, we then integrated our qualitative interview responses to provide greater context and explanation for these patterns. We presented direct quotations from students that supported and elaborated on each of the three significantly correlated factors identified quantitatively. For example, in terms of interaction with instructors, we included several interview excerpts where students described feeling dissatisfied because their professors were not holding regular online office hours, providing timely feedback, or engaging with students outside of lectures. These quotations brought the survey results to life by illustrating students’ specific experiences and perceptions related to each satisfaction factor.

We also used the qualitative data to add nuance and complexity to our interpretation of the quantitative findings. For instance, while access to technical support did not emerge as a prominent theme from the interviews overall, a few students described their frustrations in becoming dependent on campus tech staff to troubleshoot recurring issues with online platforms. By including these dissenting views, we acknowledged there may be more variables at play beyond what was captured through our Likert scale survey questions alone. The interviews helped qualify some of the general patterns identified through our statistical analysis.

In other cases, themes arose in the qualitative interviews that had not been measured directly through our survey. For example, feelings of isolation, distraction at home, and challenges in time management not captured in our quantitative instrument. We included a short discussion of these new emergent themes to present a more complete picture of students’ experiences beyond just satisfaction factors. At the same time, we noted these additional themes did not negate or contradict the specific factors found to be most strongly correlated with satisfaction through the survey results.

Our findings and analysis section effectively integrated qualitative and quantitative data by using each method to not only complement and corroborate the other, but also add context, depth, complexity and new insights. The survey data provided an overview of general patterns that was then amplified through qualitative quotations and examples. At the same time, the interviews surfaced perspectives and themes beyond what was measured quantitatively. This holistic presentation of multiple types of evidence allowed for a rich understanding of students’ diverse experiences with online learning during the pandemic. While each type of data addressed somewhat different aspects of the research topic, together they converged to provide a multidimensional view of the issues being explored. By strategically combining narrative descriptions with numeric trends in this way, we were able to achieve a more complete and integrated analysis supported by both qualitative and quantitative sources.


The integration of quantitative and qualitative data is an important step in a mixed methods research study. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods have their strengths and weaknesses, so by combining both forms of data, researchers can gain a richer and more comprehensive understanding of the topic being studied compared to using either method alone.

For this study, the integration process will involve several steps. First, after the quantitative and qualitative components of the study have been completed independently, the researchers will review and summarize the key findings from each. For the quantitative part, this will involve analyzing the results of the surveys or other instruments to determine any statistically significant relationships or differences that emerged from the data. For the qualitative part, the findings will be synthesized from the analysis of interviews, observations, or other qualitative data sources to identify prominent themes, patterns, and categories.

Having summarized the individual results, the next step will be to look for points of convergence or agreement between the two datasets where similar findings emerged from both the quantitative and qualitative strands. For example, if the quantitative data showed a relationship between two variables and the qualitative data contained participant quotes supporting this relationship, this would represent a point of convergence. Looking for these points helps validate and corroborate the significance of the findings.

The researchers will also look for any divergent or inconsistent findings where the quantitative and qualitative results do not agree. When inconsistencies are found, the researchers will carefully examine potential reasons for the divergence such as limitations within one of the datasets, questions of validity, or possibilities that each method is simply capturing a different facet of the phenomenon. Understanding why discrepancies exist can shed further light on the nuances of the topic.

In addition to convergence and divergence, the integration will involve comparing and contrasting the quantitative and qualitative findings to uncover any complementarity between them. Here the researchers are interested in how the findings from one method elaboration, enhance, illustrate, or clarify the results from the other method. For example, qualitative themes may help explain statistically significant relationships from the quantitative results by providing context, description, and examples.

Bringing together the areas of convergence, divergence, and complementarity allows for a line of evidence to develop where different pieces of the overall picture provided by each method type are woven together into an integrated whole. This integrated whole represents more than just the sum of the individual quantitative and qualitative parts due to the new insights made possible through their comparison and contrast.

The researchers will also use the interplay between the different findings to re-examine their theoretical frameworks and research questions in an iterative process. Discrepant or unexpected findings may signal the need to refine existing theories or generate new hypotheses and questions for further exploration. This dialogue between data and theory is part of the unique strength of mixed methods approaches.

All integrated findings will be presented together thematically in a coherent narrative discussion rather than keeping the qualitative and quantitative results entirely separate. Direct quotes and descriptions from qualitative data sources may be used to exemplify quantitative results while statistics can help contextualize qualitative patterns. Combined visual models, joint displays, and figures will also be utilized to clearly demonstrate how the complementary insights from both strands work together.

A rigorous approach to integration is essential for mixed methods studies to produce innovative perspectives beyond those achievable through mono-method designs. This study will follow best practices for thoroughly combining and synthesizing quantitative and qualitative findings at multiple levels to develop a richly integrated understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The end goal is to gain comprehensive knowledge through the synergy created when two distinct worldviews combine to provide more than the sum of the individual parts.